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Pertempuran Agincourt

Pertempuran Agincourt


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Pada 25 Oktober 1415, semasa Perang Seratus Tahun (1337-1453) antara Inggeris dan Perancis, Henry V (1386-1422), raja muda England, memimpin pasukannya untuk menang dalam Pertempuran Agincourt di utara Perancis. Setelah penaklukan selanjutnya di Perancis, Henry V diakui pada tahun 1420 sebagai pewaris takhta Perancis dan bupati Perancis.

Pertempuran Agincourt: Latar belakang

Dua bulan sebelum Pertempuran Agincourt bermula, Raja Henry V melintasi Selat Inggeris dengan kira-kira 11,000 orang dan mengepung Harfleur di Normandy. Selepas lima minggu bandar itu menyerah, tetapi Henry kehilangan separuh anak buahnya akibat serangan penyakit dan pertempuran. Dia memutuskan untuk mengarahkan pasukannya ke timur laut ke Calais, di mana dia akan bertemu armada Inggeris dan kembali ke England. Akan tetapi, di Agincourt, tentera Perancis yang besar yang terdiri daripada 20,000 orang berdiri di jalannya, melebihi jumlah pemanah, kesatria dan orang-orang Inggeris yang keletihan.

Pertempuran Agincourt: 25 Oktober 1415

Medan perang terletak di tanah terbuka seluas 1.000 meter di antara dua kayu, yang menghalang manuver berskala besar dan dengan itu berfungsi untuk keuntungan Henry. Pada pagi 25 Oktober, pertempuran dimulakan. Orang Inggeris berdiri di landasan mereka ketika para ksatria Perancis, diturunkan oleh baju besi berat mereka, memulakan kemajuan perlahan di medan perang berlumpur. Orang Perancis disambut oleh pengeboman artileri yang hebat dari pemanah Inggeris, yang menggunakan busur panjang inovatif dengan jarak 250 meter. Pasukan berkuda Perancis berusaha dan gagal mengalahkan kedudukan Inggeris, tetapi para pemanah dilindungi oleh barisan pancang. Ketika semakin banyak ksatria Perancis menuju ke medan perang yang sesak, pergerakan mereka semakin menurun, dan ada yang kekurangan ruang untuk mengangkat tangan dan menyerang. Pada ketika ini, Henry memerintahkan pemanahnya yang dilengkapi dengan ringan untuk bergegas ke depan dengan pedang dan kapak, dan orang Inggeris yang tidak terbebani membantai orang Perancis.

Hampir 6,000 orang Perancis kehilangan nyawa semasa Pertempuran Agincourt, sementara jumlah korban di Inggeris sekitar beberapa ratus orang. Walaupun berpeluang menentangnya, Henry telah memenangi salah satu kemenangan besar dalam sejarah ketenteraan.

Pertempuran Agincourt: Selepasnya

Setelah penaklukan selanjutnya di Perancis, Henry V diakui pada tahun 1420 sebagai pewaris takhta Perancis dan bupati Perancis. Dia berada di puncak kekuatannya tetapi meninggal hanya dua tahun kemudian akibat demam kem dekat Paris.


Pertempuran Agincourt - Latar Belakang:

Pada tahun 1414, Raja Henry V dari England memulakan perbincangan dengan bangsawannya mengenai pembaharuan perang dengan Perancis untuk menegaskan tuntutannya di takhta Perancis. Dia mengemukakan tuntutan ini melalui datuknya, Edward III yang memulakan Perang Seratus Tahun pada tahun 1337. Awalnya enggan, mereka mendorong raja untuk berunding dengan Perancis. Dengan berbuat demikian, Henry bersedia melepaskan tuntutannya ke takhta Perancis sebagai ganti 1.6 juta mahkota (tebusan tertunggak Raja Perancis II - ditawan di Poitiers pada tahun 1356), serta pengakuan Perancis atas penguasaan Inggeris terhadap tanah-tanah yang diduduki di Perancis.

Ini termasuk Touraine, Normandy, Anjou, Flanders, Brittany, dan Aquitaine. Untuk menandatangani perjanjian itu, Henry bersedia menikahi puteri muda Raja Charles VI yang kurang siuman, Puteri Catherine, jika dia mendapat mahar 2 juta mahkota. Dengan mempercayai tuntutan ini terlalu tinggi, orang Perancis mengatasi mahar dengan 600,000 mahkota dan tawaran untuk menyerahkan tanah di Aquitaine. Rundingan dengan cepat terhenti kerana Perancis menolak untuk menaikkan mas kahwin. Dengan perbincangan yang menemui jalan buntu dan merasa dihina oleh tindakan Perancis, Henry berjaya meminta perang pada 19 April 1415. Dengan mengumpulkan tentera sekitar, Henry menyeberangi Saluran dengan sekitar 10,500 orang dan mendarat di dekat Harfleur pada 13/14 Ogos.


Pertempuran Agincourt - SEJARAH

Kemenangan Inggeris dalam Pertempuran Agincourt melahirkan legenda yang diabadikan dalam karya William Shakespeare Raja Henry V. Pertempuran itu berlaku di ladang petani yang berlumpur di utara Perancis pada 25 Oktober 1415 dan merupakan salah satu siri pertemuan antara Perancis dan Inggeris yang telah dikenal sebagai Perang Seratus Tahun (1337-1453).

Kisahnya bermula dua bulan sebelum pertempuran. Henry dan tenteranya telah mendarat di Perancis pada 14 Ogos berhampiran muara Sungai Seine. Objektifnya adalah untuk mendapatkan kembali wilayah Inggeris yang kalah dari Perancis selama beberapa abad. Tugas pertama adalah mengepung dan menakluki sebuah bandar berdekatan. Henry berjaya, tetapi usaha yang memakan masa memakan waktu lebih dari sebulan. Sekarang awal Oktober. Henry menyedari bahawa kekuatannya yang berkurang dan waktu yang terbatas pada musim berkempen, bererti bahawa dia tidak akan dapat menekan serangannya ke Perancis. Sebaliknya, dia memimpin tenteranya ke utara dalam & quot; kekuatan & quot; yang akan berakhir di pelabuhan Calais Inggeris dan memulakan kembali ke England.

Henry V pada waktu
pertempuran. Potongan rambutnya menyediakan
kesesuaian yang lebih selesa
untuk helmet pertempurannya.
Ketika tentera Inggeris bergerak ke utara, pasukan itu digerakkan oleh pasukan Perancis yang bermaksud membawa Henry ke pertempuran. Orang Perancis berjaya melangkah ke depan Henry dan menghalang jalannya ke laut di Agincourt. Pada pagi 25 Oktober, kedua-dua pasukan saling berhadapan di ladang yang baru dibajak berlumpur oleh hujan semalam dan dihalang oleh hutan di kedua-dua belah pihak. Majoriti tentera Henry terdiri daripada pemanah yang selebihnya terdiri dari ksatria berperisai yang bertempur dengan berjalan kaki. Kekuatan lawannya terdiri terutamanya dari kesatria yang bertarung dengan berjalan kaki dan menunggang kuda, disokong oleh pemanah. Walaupun anggaran kekuatan relatif kedua-dua pasukan itu berbeza-beza, tidak ada argumen bahawa orang Inggeris jauh lebih banyak.

Kedua musuh saling berhadapan, bertukar ejekan yang dirancang untuk memprovokasi serangan. Henry mengejar kekuatannya cukup dekat untuk membolehkan para pemanahnya melepaskan tembakan panah ke atas orang Perancis. Ksatria Perancis menyerang ke depan hanya untuk terperangkap di dalam lumpur yang licin. Untuk memburukkan lagi keadaan, penyerang Perancis tidak dapat mengayunkan pedang mereka dengan berkesan kerana tempat yang ketat di medan perang dan pergerakan rakan-rakan mereka yang terus maju ke belakang. Pemanah Henry menembakkan ribut panah yang mematikan ke dalam kemanusiaan yang padat ini sehingga orang Perancis mula mundur. Pemanah kemudian menjatuhkan busur mereka, mengambil senjata apa yang dapat mereka temukan dan bergabung dengan kesatria Inggeris untuk membunuh musuh mereka. Matahari terbenam meninggalkan medan perang yang penuh dengan mayat ribuan ksatria Perancis dan krim kelas pemerintah Perancis. Inggeris telah menyerang musuh mereka dengan teruk.

"Kuda mereka tersandung di antara taruhannya, dan mereka dengan cepat dibunuh oleh para pemanah."

Jehan de Wavrin adalah anak seorang ksatria Flemish. Ayah dan kakaknya bertempur dengan orang Perancis semasa pertempuran. Kedua-duanya terbunuh. De Wavrin muda memerhatikan pertempuran dari garis Perancis dan kami bergabung dengan akaunnya ketika kedua-dua pasukan itu bersiap sedia untuk bertempur:

. Orang Perancis telah mengatur batalion mereka di antara dua belukar kecil, satu terletak dekat dengan Agincourt, dan yang lain ke Tramecourt. Tempat itu sempit, dan sangat menguntungkan bagi orang Inggeris, dan, sebaliknya, sangat merosakkan bagi orang Perancis, kerana orang Perancis tersebut telah sepanjang malam menunggang kuda, dan hujan, dan halaman, pengantin lelaki, dan lain-lain, memimpin mengenai kuda, telah memecah tanah, yang sangat lembut sehingga kuda-kuda itu sukar keluar dari tanah. Dan juga orang-orang Perancis yang disebut itu penuh dengan baju besi sehingga mereka tidak dapat menopang diri mereka sendiri atau bergerak maju. Di tempat pertama mereka bersenjata dengan lapisan keluli panjang, sampai ke lutut atau bawah, dan sangat berat, di atas tali pinggang kaki, dan selain pelindung perisai juga kebanyakan mereka mempunyai topi keledar bertudung oleh itu berat perisai ini, dengan kelembutan tanah basah, seperti yang telah dikatakan, menjaga mereka seolah-olah tidak bergerak, sehingga mereka dapat mengangkat julukan mereka hanya dengan kesulitan besar, dan dengan semua kerusakan itu ada, bahawa kebanyakan mereka bermasalah dengan kelaparan dan ingin tidur.

. Sekarang mari kita kembali ke Bahasa Inggeris. Setelah pergaduhan antara kedua pasukan itu selesai dan para perwakilan telah kembali, masing-masing kepada rakyat mereka sendiri, Raja Inggeris, yang telah melantik seorang ksatria bernama Sir Thomas Erpingham untuk meletakkan pemanahnya di depan dengan dua sayap, yang dipercayai sepenuhnya kepadanya, dan Sir Thomas, untuk melakukan tugasnya, menggesa setiap orang untuk melakukannya dengan baik atas nama Raja, meminta mereka untuk bertempur dengan kuat menentang Perancis untuk melindungi dan menyelamatkan nyawa mereka sendiri. Dan dengan itu ksatria itu, yang menunggang dengan dua yang lain hanya di depan batalion, melihat bahawa waktunya telah tiba, kerana semua perkara diatur dengan baik, melempar tongkat yang dipegangnya di tangannya, sambil mengatakan 'Nestrocq' ['Sekarang mogok '] yang menjadi isyarat serangan kemudian turun dan bergabung dengan Raja, yang juga berjalan kaki di tengah-tengah anak buahnya, dengan sepanduk di hadapannya.

Gambaran kontemporari pertempuran.
Agincourt berdiri di latar belakang.
Kemudian orang Inggeris, melihat isyarat ini, tiba-tiba bergerak, mengucapkan teriakan yang sangat kuat, yang sangat mengejutkan orang Perancis. Dan ketika orang Inggeris melihat bahawa orang Perancis tidak menghampiri mereka, mereka berjalan dengan laju ke arah mereka dengan teratur, dan sekali lagi mengangkat tangisan yang kuat ketika mereka berhenti untuk menarik nafas.

Kemudian pemanah Inggeris, yang, seperti yang telah saya katakan, berada di sayap, melihat bahawa mereka cukup dekat, dan mula menghantar panah mereka ke Perancis dengan kuat.

Kemudian orang Perancis melihat Inggeris datang ke arah mereka dengan cara ini, menempatkan diri mereka dalam keadaan tertib, semua orang di bawah sepanduknya, topi keledar mereka di kepala mereka. Konstabel, Marsekal, para laksamana, dan para pangeran lain dengan bersungguh-sungguh menasihati orang-orangnya untuk memerangi Inggeris dengan baik dan berani dan ketika sampai di dekatnya, sangkakala dan pertengkaran bergema di mana-mana tetapi Perancis mula menahan kepalanya, terutama mereka yang tidak mempunyai pengawal, kerana ketidaksabaran anak panah Inggeris, yang jatuh dengan teruk sehingga tidak ada yang berani membongkar atau melihat ke atas.

Oleh itu, mereka maju sedikit, kemudian mundur sedikit, tetapi sebelum mereka sampai di tempat yang dekat, banyak orang Perancis cacat dan terluka oleh anak panah dan ketika mereka sampai ke bahasa Inggeris, mereka, seperti yang telah dikatakan , begitu menekan satu sama lain sehingga tidak ada yang bisa mengangkat tangan untuk menyerang musuh mereka, kecuali beberapa yang berada di depan.

[Ksatria Perancis] menyerang pemanah Inggeris ini, yang mempertaruhkan taruhan mereka di hadapan mereka. mereka. kuda tersandung di antara taruhannya, dan mereka dengan cepat dibunuh oleh pemanah, yang sangat disayangkan. Dan sebahagian besar yang lain, melalui ketakutan, memberi jalan dan kembali ke barisan hadapan mereka, kepada siapa mereka menjadi penghalang besar dan mereka membuka barisan mereka di beberapa tempat, dan membuat mereka jatuh dan kehilangan pijakan di beberapa tanah yang baru ditaburkan untuk mereka kuda telah terluka oleh anak panah sehingga lelaki itu tidak lagi dapat menguruskannya.

[Orang Perancis] tanpa senjata mulai jatuh dan kuda mereka merasakan anak panah yang datang ke atas mereka terbang di hadapan musuh, dan mengikuti teladan mereka, banyak orang Perancis berpaling dan melarikan diri. Tidak lama kemudian, pemanah Inggeris, melihat barisan depan yang terguncang, dikeluarkan dari belakang benteng mereka, membuang busur dan gundukan mereka, lalu mengambil pedang, kapak, palu, kapak, parang elang dan senjata lain, dan, mendorong ke tempat-tempat di mana mereka melihat pelanggaran ini, menyerang dan membunuh orang-orang Perancis ini tanpa belas kasihan, dan tidak pernah berhenti membunuh sehingga pelopor yang bertempur sedikit atau tidak sama sekali itu benar-benar kewalahan, dan ini terus menyerang ke kanan dan kiri sehingga mereka sampai di batalion kedua , yang berada di belakang penjaga depan, dan di sana Raja secara pribadi melancarkan pertempuran dengan orang-orangnya.

Ketika orang Inggeris terus menguasai, Raja Henry menerima berita bahawa orang-orang Perancis menyerang di belakang tenteranya dan bahawa pasukan-pasukan bala Perancis semakin dekat. Raja Henry memerintahkan agar semua tahanan Perancis dihukum pedang - perintah para kesatria mereka enggan mengikuti kerana, jika masih hidup, tahanan ini dapat membawa tebusan yang sihat:

& quot; Ketika Raja Inggris melihat mereka datang, maka ia menyebabkan diterbitkan bahawa setiap orang yang memiliki tawanan harus segera membunuhnya, yang mana mereka yang tidak ada yang tidak mau melakukan, kerana mereka diharapkan mendapat tebusan besar untuk mereka. Tetapi ketika Raja diberitahu tentang hal ini, dia melantik seorang lelaki dengan dua ratus pemanah yang diperintahkannya untuk melewati tuan rumah dan membunuh semua tahanan, siapa pun mereka. Permintaan ini, tanpa penundaan atau keberatan, memenuhi perintah tuannya yang berdaulat, yang merupakan hal yang paling menyedihkan, kerana dalam darah dingin semua bangsawan Perancis dipenggal dan dipotong secara tidak manusiawi, dan melalui syarikat terkutuk ini, set maaf dibandingkan dengan sopan santun yang mulia, yang ketika mereka melihat bahawa Inggeris bersedia menerima mereka, semua segera berpaling dan melarikan diri, masing-masing menyelamatkan nyawanya sendiri. Banyak pasukan berkuda melarikan diri tetapi di antara mereka yang berjalan kaki ada banyak yang mati. & Quot

Rujukan:
Wavrin, Jehan de, Chronicles, 1399-1422, trans. Sir W. Hardy dan E. Hardy (1887) Keegan, John, The Illustrated Face of Battle: kajian mengenai Agincourt, Waterloo dan Somme (1989).


Adakah Pemanah Agincourt Benar-benar Menciptakan Sumpah Dengan Tanda-T Salut Dua Jari?

Walaupun orang Amerika 'membalik burung' dengan satu jari tengah, orang Inggeris secara tradisional telah mencapai hal yang sama dengan dua jari.

Salut dua jari, atau kemenangan ke belakang atau tanda-V, dibuat dengan jari tengah dan telunjuk, dikatakan berasal dari pemanah Inggeris di Agincourt pada tahun 1415.

Penyelidik abad pertengahan dan pakar busur panjang Clive Bartlett mendakwa dalam bukunya ‘English Longbowman 1330-1515’ bahawa ia. Begitu juga sejarawan Craig Taylor dalam dokumentari Geografi Nasional ‘Agincourt: Seratus Tahun Perang’.

Walaupun ini telah dipertikaikan oleh orang lain.

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Dalam bukunya ‘Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends’, David Wilton menerangkan asal-usul tanda-V di bahagian yang bertajuk ‘F ** k’:

"Selama Perang Seratus Tahun, Perancis akan memotong jari tengah dari tangan pemanah Inggeris yang ditangkap sehingga mereka tidak lagi dapat menarik tali busur yew mereka yang mematikan (jenis kayu dari mana mereka dibuat.) Kerana ini , Pemanah Inggeris akan mengejek orang Perancis dengan mengangkat jari tengah dan berseru bahawa mereka masih boleh 'memetik yew', oleh itu perkataan empat huruf (f ** k.) "

Lucu, walaupun ketika Wilton menjelaskan, "... ini jelas (hanya) lelucon. Tidak diragukan lagi bahawa siapa pun yang datang dengan pelolong ini bermaksud agar ia dianggap serius ”.

Namun, ia telah merebak, katanya, berkat internet.

Secara khusus, transkrip rancangan NPR (National Public Radio, program AS) yang tidak tepat yang disebut 'Car Talk' memaparkan kisah yang menjawab persoalan bahagian tubuh mana pemanah Inggeris melambai di Perancis di Agincourt. Yang mana, ia mendakwa:

"... jari tengah, tanpanya mustahil untuk menggambar busur Inggeris yang terkenal ... Oleh itu, ketika orang Inggeris yang berjaya melambaikan jari tengah mereka ke Perancis yang kalah, mereka berkata," Lihat, kita masih boleh memetik yew! TEMPAH YEW! '

"Selama bertahun-tahun ... Oleh kerana 'pluck yew' agak sukar untuk dikatakan [seperti 'plucker ibu yang menyenangkan', yang mana anda harus pergi untuk bulu yang digunakan pada anak panah], kumpulan konsonan yang sukar pada awalnya secara beransur-ansur diubah menjadi frikatif labiodental 'f', dan dengan itu kata-kata yang sering digunakan bersama dengan salam satu jari secara keliru dianggap mempunyai kaitan dengan pertemuan intim ".

Sebenarnya, episod sebenar rancangan itu tidak memaparkan apa-apa mengenai "memetik yew" dan hanya mengatakan bahawa isyarat lain (mungkin memberi salam dengan dua jari) mungkin berasal dari Agincourt.

Wilton mengakui sebelumnya dalam buku bahawa kisah Agincourt dan tabik dua jari lebih tua daripada internet. Namun, dia juga mengatakan itu sesuai dengan perihal berapa banyak kisah tinggi yang timbul: melalui spekulasi, fakta yang memutarbelitkan, dan lelucon.

‘Pluck yew’ itu lucu, dan dengan demikian hampir pasti, dia menyimpulkan, memulakan hidup sebagai gurauan semata-mata. Dari sana, ia pasti akan meragut nyawa sendiri apabila beberapa orang mula menganggapnya serius.

Halaman Wikipedia pada tanda-V menyebutkan buku Wilton di bahagian asalnya, walaupun juga merujuk pada dokumen abad pertengahan di mana seorang pemanah Inggeris digambarkan mungkin membuat isyarat.

Gambar yang dirujuknya dipegang oleh Perpustakaan Britain, yang dihubungi oleh Forces Network untuk maklumat lebih lanjut.

Mereka bersetuju dengan kami bahawa, sebenarnya, tidak jelas apakah pemanah itu mengangkat dua jari, atau menunjuk ke pantat - sejenis gundukan dengan sasaran yang terpasang yang digunakan untuk latihan oleh pemanah di England abad pertengahan.

Memandangkan adanya pantat, sepertinya lebih cenderung dimaksudkan sebagai gambaran yang terakhir. Dan penilaian Perpustakaan Inggeris adalah bahawa tidak ada bukti yang cukup untuk menyimpulkan bahawa ada kaitan antara Agincourt dan sikap ofensif hari ini.

Mengapa Agincourt Sangat Penting?

Mencari hubungan yang jelas dengan isyarat mengaburkan persoalan yang lebih besar mengapa pertempuran ini telah dikhayalkan sehingga dihubungkan, betul atau tidak, dengan hormat biasa dengan dua jari.

Dengan kata lain, mengapa Agincourt begitu penting? Mengapa pertempuran Agincourt bermula? Bagaimana ia sebenarnya berlaku? Dan apakah kesannya terhadap sejarah Inggeris dan Perancis?

Pemeriksaan yang teliti terhadap pertempuran itu sendiri tidak hanya menunjukkan jawapan kepada soalan-soalan ini dan banyak lagi, tetapi juga mengapa ia merupakan bahagian penting dalam sejarah dan budaya Inggeris.

Dalam Kasut Pemanah

25 Oktober 1415, adalah hari yang tepat untuk menjadi tentera Inggeris.

Sudah tentu, orang boleh mengatakan yang sama dengan tarikh takdir yang lain: 6 Jun 1944 1 Julai 1916 atau, pada masa yang lebih jauh, 14 Oktober 1066.

Tetapi St Crispin's, dan St Crispian's, Day lebih daripada sekadar legenda Shakespearean.

Kerana ketika matahari terbit pagi itu, tentera Inggeris, yang berjumlah antara tiga hingga 7,000 orang kebanyakan pemanah 'kelahiran rendah', menghadapi kemungkinan besar.

Kurang dari satu kilometer jauhnya, di seberang ladang berlumpur dan ditaburkan gandum di luar kota Agincourt, adalah tentera Perancis sekurang-kurangnya tiga kali lebih besar.

Orang Inggeris kelaparan dan mati-matian berusaha melarikan diri dari Perancis melalui pelabuhan di Calais, jalan yang kini dihalang oleh sebanyak 28.000 tentera Perancis yang bersenjata baik. Sebilangan besar adalah golongan bangsawan, berpakaian perisai keluli canggih, dan ada juga yang menggunakan kuda berperisai separa memegang tombak - kereta kebal abad pertengahan.

Henry V memimpin pasukan kontrak yang terlatih - permulaan pasukan bersenjata profesional hari ini. Tetapi jika dibandingkan dengan kemungkinan ini, ini seharusnya merupakan hari paling gelap, bukan pada 1 Julai 1916.

Tetapi orang Inggeris tidak takut. Mereka marah.

Mereka telah mendengar nyanyian dan olok-olok lawan mereka, dan melihat api unggun mereka yang menyala malam sebelumnya. Semua bertentangan dengan pengakuan suci orang Inggeris yang lebih tenang, dan harapan mereka akan mati pada hari esok.

Namun Raja Henry yang berusia 29 tahun telah memanfaatkan dan memanfaatkan keangkuhan Perancis, mengingatkan para pelayan panjangnya tentang khabar angin bahawa jika tidak terbunuh dalam pertempuran, tangan kanan mereka akan dimutilasi oleh musuh mereka.

Bahagian cerita ini hampir pasti benar. Pemanah Inggeris, dengan busur panjang 6 kaki mereka, adalah kumpulan elit di Eropah abad pertengahan. Namun, mereka terdiri daripada petani yang kebanyakannya 'lahir rendah' ​​dan tidak dihormati oleh kesatria Perancis.

Ucapan ‘kumpulan saudara-saudara’ Raja Henry, yang sebenarnya dia berikan pada malam 24 Oktober, bukan hari pertempuran seperti pertunjukan drama Shakespeare, bertujuan mengatasi jurang kelas ini.

Begitu juga dengan merobek dan keluar dari lapisan kerajaan pada 25 Oktober - satu isyarat untuk melambangkan perpaduan yang melintasi garis kelas.

Akhirnya, pemakaian Saints Cripin dan Crispian adalah sebahagian daripada strategi ini. Walaupun Crispin dan Crispian adalah orang Perancis, bukan orang suci Inggeris, mereka juga biasa. Semasa pertempuran 1414, orang-orang kudus Soissons ini telah dimutilasi tangan mereka ketika kota mereka ditawan oleh Orleanists, salah satu puak dalam perebutan kuasa yang sengit di Perancis.

Satu perincian penting di sini adalah bahawa pemanah Inggeris yang juga berperang melawan Orleanists juga dibunuh.

Pilihan untuk menghormati orang-orang kudus sepertinya telah bergema dengan pasukan Henry, kerana pasukannya yang kecil hendak bersatu, dan bersatu dengan baik, di sekitar tujuan bersama: membuat orang Perancis menyerang mereka.

Adakah itu "Naik!" memberi salam dengan dua jari, sekejap seperti Skotlandia yang menantang dalam 'Braveheart', atau hanya tipuan (serangan palsu) oleh beberapa pemanah yang melakukannya, ini semua adalah sebahagian daripada rancangan licik.

Kerana orang Inggeris telah meletakkan perangkap mematikan untuk lawan Perancis mereka, yang akan segera dilancarkan dengan ledakan tanduk berburu.

Setelah merayap secara diam-diam ke posisi, menunggu di belakang pagar dan pohon, dan siap untuk melindung di sebalik keamanan tembok tiang mereka, para pemanah Inggeris bersiap untuk melepaskan ribut anak panah mereka.

Dibangunkan dengan latihan memanah biasa di rentang pantat, dan terinspirasi oleh kisah Robin Hood, para pemanah dengan mahir menjatuhkan tali pada busur mereka dan menyiapkan mereka untuk beraksi.

Ketika mereka melenturkan otot bahu dan punggung mereka untuk menggunakan berat tarikan 100 hingga 150-lb yang diperlukan untuk melenturkan busur, mereka mungkin tertanya-tanya terakhir kali: Adakah ini akan menjadi seperti pembantaian besar-besaran dan bencana Hastings pada 1066, atau kemenangan mengejutkan Crecy pada tahun 1046?

Ketika mereka mendengar dan mungkin merasakan barisan pasukan berkuda Perancis berlari ke arah mereka, dan menyaksikan barisan 30-an orang-orang Perancis memulakan perarakan mereka, mereka pasti sangat berharap untuk yang terakhir.

Waktu itu sekitar pukul 11 ​​pagi, dan tanduk pemburu yang telah dirancang telah berteriak dari pihak Inggeris.

Di mana sahaja mereka berada - di kiri atau kanan tentera Inggeris, atau bersembunyi dan bersedia untuk melancarkan serangan dari ladang berhampiran desa Tramecourt - pemanah Inggeris melepaskan ribut panah mereka.


Sejarawan Menilai semula Pertempuran Agincourt

MAISONCELLE, Perancis - Lumpur lumpur berat di belakang kandang lembu di ladang Antoine Renault kelihatan seperti khianat seperti yang berlaku hampir 600 tahun yang lalu, ketika Raja Henry V menunggang dari tempat dekat sini untuk memimpin Tentera Inggeris yang lemah dan lelah melawan pasukan Perancis yang dikatakan melebihi jumlahnya sebanyak lima hingga satu.

Tidak ada yang dapat mengambil kemenangan mengejutkan oleh Henry dan "kumpulan saudara-saudaranya", kerana Shakespeare akan memanggil mereka dengan terkenal, pada Hari St Crispin, 25 Oktober 1415. Mereka menghancurkan kekuatan bangsawan Perancis yang berperisai yang telah mendapat tersangkut di lumpur penghisap wilayah itu, dikelilingi oleh ribuan anak panah dari ahli busur Inggeris dan dikendalikan oleh tentera biasa dengan peralatan yang jauh lebih ringan. Ia akan dikenali sebagai Pertempuran Agincourt.

Tetapi status Agincourt sebagai kemenangan terbesar sebagai pertarungan besar dalam sejarah ketenteraan - dan tonggak citra diri Inggeris - telah diragukan oleh sekumpulan sejarawan di Britain dan Perancis yang telah dengan susah payah menyusun pelbagai catatan tentera dan cukai dari masa itu dan sekarang mengambil pandangan skeptis mengenai angka yang diturunkan oleh penulis sejarah abad pertengahan.

Sejarawan telah membuat kesimpulan bahawa bahasa Inggeris tidak boleh melebihi jumlahnya lebih dari dua hingga satu. Dan bergantung pada bagaimana matematika dijalankan, Henry mungkin menghadapi sesuatu yang lebih dekat dengan pertarungan yang sama rata, kata Anne Curry, seorang profesor di University of Southampton yang memimpin kajian ini.

Tokoh-tokoh dingin itu mengancam gambaran pertempuran yang bahkan para penyelidik profesional dan ahli akademik enggan menantang dalam menghadapi ayat Shakespeare dan kebanggaan berbahasa Inggeris selama berabad-abad, kata Cik Curry.

"Ini hanya mitos, tetapi ini adalah mitos yang menjadi bagian dari jiwa Inggeris," kata Cik Curry.

Karya ini, yang telah mendapat pujian terang dan kritikan tajam dari sejarawan lain di Amerika Syarikat dan Eropah, adalah kisah revisionis yang paling mencolok yang muncul dari sains sejarah ketenteraan yang baru. Akaun baru cenderung tidak hanya lebih kuantitatif tetapi juga lebih sesuai dengan faktor politik, budaya dan teknologi, dan lebih fokus pada pengalaman askar biasa daripada strategi besar dan tindakan kepahlawanan.

Pendekatan ini telah mengubah pandangan secara drastis mengenai segala hal, dari pertempuran Rom dengan suku Jerman, hingga penjajahan Napoleon di Sepanyol, hingga serangan Tet dalam Perang Vietnam. Tetapi ukuran paling menghormati penghormatan yang diberikan kepada para sejarawan baru dan kecenderungan mereka untuk meruntuhkan kebijaksanaan yang mapan adalah bahawa sekarang sudah hampir rutin bagi para komandan Amerika untuk meminta mereka nasihat mengenai strategi dan taktik di Afghanistan, Iraq dan yang lain -konflik hari.

Contoh yang paling berpengaruh adalah "Manual Medan Pemberontakan" yang diadopsi pada tahun 2006 oleh Angkatan Darat dan Marinir Amerika Syarikat dan menyerang di tengah-tengah perdebatan mengenai apakah akan meningkatkan tahap pasukan di Afghanistan.

Jeneral David H. Petraeus, yang mengawasi perang di Iraq dan Afghanistan sebagai ketua Komando Pusat Amerika Syarikat, menarik puluhan ahli sejarah akademik dan pakar lain untuk membuat manual tersebut. Dan dia menamakan Conrad Crane, pengarah Institut Sejarah Ketenteraan Tentera Amerika Syarikat di College War College, sebagai penulis utama.

Berdasarkan puluhan konflik sejarah, kesimpulan utama manual adalah penegasan bahawa pemberontakan tidak dapat dikalahkan tanpa melindungi dan memenangkan penduduk umum, tanpa mengira seberapa berkesan serangan langsung terhadap pejuang musuh.

Crane mengatakan bahawa beberapa penyelidikan sejarah awalnya melibatkan perbandingan kempen pengeboman strategik dengan serangan ke atas orang awam dengan mengamuk tentera semasa Perang Seratus Tahun, ketika Inggeris mencuba dan akhirnya gagal menegaskan kawalan ke atas benua Perancis. Agincourt mungkin merupakan kemenangan paling menggembirakan yang akan dicapai oleh Inggeris di tanah Perancis semasa konflik.

Perang Seratus Tahun tidak pernah menjadi buku panduan lapangan - nama itu sendiri mungkin berfungsi sebagai pencegah - tetapi setelah mengeluarkan banyak peringatan mengenai perbezaan masa, teknologi dan tujuan politik, sejarawan yang bekerja di kawasan itu mengatakan bahawa ada beberapa tidak selari dengan konflik asing kontemporari.

Untuk satu perkara, pada saat Henry mendarat di dekat muara Seine pada 14 Ogos 1415, dan memulakan pengepungan sebuah kota bernama Harfleur, Perancis berada di ambang perang saudara, dengan puak-puak yang disebut Burgundians dan Armagnacs di antara orang lain. Henry akhirnya akan menjalin persekutuan dengan orang Burgundia, yang pada masa sekarang akan menjadi "pasukan keamanan tempatan" di Normandia, dan dia memupuk sokongan pedagang dan ulama tempatan, semua amalan yang pasti disokong oleh manual pemberontakan.

"Saya bukan orang yang melihat sejarah berulang, tetapi saya rasa banyak sikap," kata Kelly DeVries, seorang profesor sejarah di Loyola University Maryland yang telah banyak menulis mengenai peperangan abad pertengahan. DeVries mengatakan bahawa pejuang dari seluruh wilayah mulai menyaring menuju kem Armagnac sebaik Henry bersekutu dengan musuh mereka. "Sama seperti Al Qaeda di Iraq, ada pasukan yang sangat beragam yang datang dari tempat yang sangat berbeza untuk bertempur," kata Mr. DeVries.

Tetapi Henry pertama kali berpeluang di Agincourt. Setelah mengambil Harfleur, dia berjalan cepat ke utara dan menyeberangi Sungai Somme, tenteranya habis oleh disentri dan kehilangan pertempuran dan bertambah lapar dan lelah.

Pada masa yang sama, pasukan Perancis yang patah buru-buru berkumpul untuk menemuinya.

Di sinilah sejarawan mula bertengkar, dan beberapa pengecualian mendapat beasiswa baru oleh pasukan Cik Curry.

Berdasarkan sejarah yang dianggapnya tepat, Clifford J. Rogers, seorang profesor sejarah di Akademi Tentera Amerika Syarikat di West Point, berpendapat bahawa Henry sebenarnya jauh lebih besar. Bagi orang Inggeris, terdapat kira-kira 1.000 orang yang disebut sebagai senjata-senjata di perisai keluli berat dari kepala hingga kaki dan 5,000 lelaki berperisai ringan dengan busur panjang. Orang Perancis mengumpulkan kira-kira 10.000 orang-orang, masing-masing dengan seorang petugas dipanggil pelayan gros yang juga dapat bertempur, dan sekitar 4.000 orang dengan busur silang dan pejuang lain.

Walaupun Mr Rogers menulis dalam sebuah makalah baru-baru ini bahawa pasukan panah Perancis "sepenuhnya dikalahkan" oleh pemanah Inggeris, yang dapat mengirim voli maut lebih jauh dan lebih kerap, jumlah keseluruhan akan menghasilkan nisbah empat hingga satu, dekat dengan tradisional angka. Rogers mengatakan dalam satu wawancara bahawa dia menganggap catatan arsip itu terlalu tidak lengkap untuk mengubah anggaran tersebut secara substansial.

Namun, beberapa sejarawan Perancis mengatakan dalam wawancara bulan ini bahawa mereka benar-benar meragui bahawa Perancis, yang dipengaruhi oleh perselisihan faksi dan menarik dari penduduk yang sangat lemah oleh wabak, dapat meningkatkan pasukan yang besar dalam waktu yang singkat. Raja Perancis, Charles VI, juga menderita kegilaan.

"Itu bukan kekuatan Perancis sepenuhnya di Agincourt," kata Bertrand Schnerb, seorang profesor sejarah abad pertengahan di University of Lille, yang menganggarkan terdapat 12,000 hingga 15,000 tentera Perancis.

Cik Curry, sejarawan Southampton, mengatakan bahawa dia merasa selesa dengan sesuatu yang dekat dengan angka yang lebih rendah itu, berdasarkan pembacaannya mengenai arkib bersejarah, termasuk catatan gaji tentera, gulungan kapal, balak kapal, buku daftar orang yang cedera dan mati, cukai perang pungutan dan dokumen lain yang masih ada.

Dari sisi Inggeris, Cik Curry mengira bahawa Henry mungkin mempunyai sekurang-kurangnya 8,680 askar bersamanya dalam perjalanannya ke Agincourt. Dia menamakan ribuan pasukan yang mungkin, dari Adam Adrya, seorang lelaki, hingga Philip Zevan, seorang pemanah.

Dan pangkalan data dalam talian yang luar biasa yang menyenaraikan sekitar seperempat juta nama lelaki yang berkhidmat dalam Perang Seratus Tahun, yang disusun oleh Cik Curry dan rakan-rakannya di universiti-universiti di Southampton dan Reading, menunjukkan bahawa apa pun jumlahnya, tentera Henry sebenarnya adalah kumpulan saudara: kebanyakan tentera adalah veteran yang pernah berkhidmat dalam pelbagai kempen bersama.

"Anda melihat kesinambungan yang luar biasa dengan orang-orang yang saling mengenali dan saling mempercayai," kata Cik Curry.

Kepercayaan itu pasti berguna setelah Henry, melalui serangkaian gerakan taktik yang cemerlang, memprovokasi pasukan berkuda Perancis - yang dipasang di tangan - untuk menugaskan massa orang-orang panjang yang berada di sisi Inggeris dalam bidang yang agak sempit antara dua set kayu yang masih ada tidak jauh dari ladang Mr. Renault di Maisoncelle.

Rangkaian peristiwa yang disusuli ketika orang-orang Perancis berlari melewati ladang-ladang yang berlumpur dan berkubang di belakang pasukan berkuda itu cepat dan membunuh.

Volley after volley of English arrow fire maddened the horses, killed many of the riders and forced the advancing men-at-arms into a mass so dense that many of them could not even lift their arms.

When the heavily armored French men-at-arms fell wounded, many could not get up and simply drowned in the mud as other men stumbled over them. And as order on the French lines broke down completely and panic set in, the much nimbler archers ran forward, killing thousands by stabbing them in the neck, eyes, armpits and groin through gaps in the armor, or simply ganged up and bludgeoned the Frenchmen to death.

“The situation was beyond grisly it was horrific in the extreme,” Mr. Rogers wrote in his paper.

King Henry V had emerged victorious, and as some historians see it, the English crown then mounted a public relations effort to magnify the victory by exaggerating the disparity in numbers.

Whatever the magnitude of the victory, it would not last. The French populace gradually soured on the English occupation as the fighting continued and the civil war remained unresolved in the decades after Henry’s death in 1422, Mr. Schnerb said.

“They came into France saying, ‘You Frenchmen have civil war, and now our king is coming to give you peace,’ ” Mr. Schnerb said. “It was a failure.”

Unwilling to blame a failed counterinsurgency strategy, Shakespeare pinned the loss on poor Henry VI:

“Whose state so many had the managing, That they lost France and made his England bleed.”


Kandungan

WESTMORLAND. O that we now had here
But one ten thousand of those men in England
That do no work to-day!

KING. What's he that wishes so?
My cousin, Westmorland? No, my fair cousin
If we are mark'd to die, we are enough
To do our country loss and if to live,
The fewer men, the greater share of honour.
God's will! I pray thee, wish not one man more.
By Jove, I am not covetous for gold,
Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost
It yearns me not if men my garments wear
Such outward things dwell not in my desires.
But if it be a sin to covet honour,
I am the most offending soul alive.
No, faith, my coz, wish not a man from England.
God's peace! I would not lose so great an honour
As one man more methinks would share from me
For the best hope I have. O, do not wish one more!
Rather proclaim it, Westmorland, through my host,
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart his passport shall be made,
And crowns for convoy put into his purse
We would not die in that man's company
That fears his fellowship to die with us.
This day is call'd the feast of Crispian.
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home,
Will stand a tip-toe when this day is nam'd,
And rouse him at the name of Crispian.
He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say "To-morrow is Saint Crispian."
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars,
And say "These wounds I had on Crispin's day."
Old men forget yet all shall be forgot,
But he'll remember, with advantages,
What feats he did that day. Then shall our names,
Familiar in his mouth as household words—
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester—
Be in their flowing cups freshly rememb'red.
This story shall the good man teach his son
And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be rememberèd—
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother be he ne'er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition
And gentlemen in England now a-bed
Shall think themselves accurs'd they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day.

Use and quotation Edit

  • During the Napoleonic Wars, just prior to the Battle of the Nile, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, then Rear Admiral of the Blue, referred to his captains as his "band of brothers". [2] ' magazine Perkataan Rumah Tangga (1850-1851) took its name from the speech. [3]
  • During the First Barbary War, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, Jr. proclaimed "the fewer men, the greater share of honor," before leading a raiding party to destroy the USS Philadelphia (1799) . [4]
  • During World War II, Laurence Olivier delivered the speech during a radio programme to boost British morale and Winston Churchill found him so inspiring that he asked Olivier to produce the Shakespeare play as a film. Olivier's adaptation appeared in 1944. [2] It is said that the radio programme inspired Churchill's famous Never was so much owed by so many to so few speech made in 1940 during the Battle of Britain.
  • The title of British politician Duff Cooper's autobiography Old Men Forget (1953) is taken from the speech. [5]
  • During the legal battle for the U.S. presidential election of 2000, regarding the Florida vote recount, members of the Florida legal team for George W. Bush, the eventual legal victor, joined arms and recited the speech during a break in preparation, to motivate themselves. [6]
  • On the day of the result of the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, as the vote to leave became clear, activist and MEP Daniel Hannan is reported to have delivered an edited version of the speech from a table, replacing the names Bedford, Exeter, Warwick and Talbot with other prominent Vote Leave activists. [7][8]

Film, television, music and literature Edit

Parts of the speech appear in films such as The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), [9] [10] Batu Nisan (1993), [11] Renaissance Man (1994), [12] Tea With Mussolini (1999), [13] This Is England (2006), [14] and Their Finest (2017). [15] It has also been used in television series such as Rough Riders (1997), [16] [17] Buffy the Vampire Slayer, [18] [19] The Black Adder, [20] [21] and Doktor Siapa. [22]


The Longbow

The longbow as we recognise it today, measuring around the height of a man, made its first major appearance towards the end of the Middle Ages. Although generally attributed to the Welsh, longbows have in fact been around at least since Neolithic times: one made of yew and wrapped in leather was found in Somerset in 1961. It is thought that even earlier finds have been uncovered in Scandinavia.

The Welsh however, do appear to have been the first to develop the tactical use of the longbow into the deadliest weapon of its day. During the Anglo-Norman invasion of Wales, it is said that the ‘Welsh bowmen took a heavy toll on the invaders’. With the conquest of Wales complete, Welsh conscripts were incorporated into the English army for Edward’s campaigns further north into Scotland.

Although King Edward I, ‘The Hammer of the Celts’, is normally regarded as the man responsible for adding the might of the longbow to the English armoury of the day, the actual evidence for this is vague, although he did ban all sports but archery on Sundays, to make sure Englishmen practised with the longbow. It is however during Edward III’s reign when more documented evidence confirms the important role that the longbow has played in both English and Welsh history.

Edward III’s reign was of course dominated by the Hundred Years War which actually lasted from 1337-1453. It was perhaps due this continual state of war that so many historical records survive which raise the longbow to legendary status first at Crécy and Poitiers, and then at Agincourt.

Battle of Crécy

After landing with some 12,000 men, including 7,000 archers and taking Caen in Normandy, Edward III moved northwards. Edward’s forces were continually tracked by a much larger French army, until they finally arrived at Crécy in 1346 with a force of 8,000.

The English took a defensive position in three divisions on ground that sloped downwards, with the archers on the flanks. One of these divisions was commanded by Edward’s sixteen year old son Edward the Black Prince. The French first sent out the mercenary Genoese crossbowmen, numbering between 6000 and 12,000 men. With a firing rate of three – five volleys per minute they were however no match for the English and Welsh longbow men who could fire ten – twelve arrows in the same amount of time. It is also reported that rain had adversely affected the bowstrings of the crossbows.

Philip VI, after commenting on the uselessness of his archers, sent forward his cavalry who charged through and over his own crossbowmen. The English and Welsh archers and men-at-arms held them off not just once, but 16 times in total. During one of these attacks Edward’s son The Black Prince came under direct attack, but his father refused to send help, claiming he needed to ‘win his spurs’.

After nightfall Philip VI, himself wounded, ordered the retreat. According to one estimate French casualties included eleven princes, 1,200 knights and 12,000 soldiers killed. Edward III is said have lost a few hundred men.


Battle of Crécy between the English and French in the Hundred Years’ War.
From a 15th-century illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles

Battle of Poitiers

Details concerning the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 are in fact quite vague, however it appears that some 10,000 English and Welsh troops, this time led by Edward, Prince of Wales, also known as the Black Prince, were retreating after a long campaign in France with a French army of somewhere between 20,000 – 60,000 men in close pursuit. The two armies were separated by a large hedge when the French found a gap and attempted to break through. Realising battle was about to commence The Black Prince ordered his men to form their usual battle positions with his archers on the flanks.

The French, who had developed a small cavalry unit specifically to attack the English and Welsh archers, were not only brought to an abrupt stop by the number of arrows that showered down upon them, they were by all accounts routed. The next attack came from the Germans who had allied themselves with the French and were leading the second cavalry attack. This was also stopped and it is said that so intense was the attack by the English and Welsh archers that at one point some ran out of arrows and had to run forward and collect arrows embedded in people lying on the ground.

Following a final volley of his archers’ fire, the Black Prince ordered the advance. The French broke and were pursued to Poitiers where the French King was captured. He was transported to London and held to ransom in the Tower of London for 3,000,000 gold crowns.

Battle of Agincourt

A 28-year-old King Henry V set sail from Southampton on 11th August 1415 with a fleet of around 300 ships to claim his birthright of the Duchy of Normandy and so revive English fortunes in France. Landing at Harfleur in northern France, they besieged the town.

The siege lasted five weeks, much longer than expected, and Henry lost around 2,000 of his men to dysentery. Henry took the decision to leave a garrison at Harfleur and take the remainder of his army back home via the French port of Calais almost 100 miles away to the north. Just two minor problems lay in their way – a very, very large and angry French army and the River Somme. Outnumbered, sick and short of supplies Henry’s army struggled but eventually managed to cross the Somme.

It was on the road north, near the village of Agincourt, that the French were finally able to stop Henry’s march. Some 25,000 Frenchmen faced Henry’s 6000. As if things couldn’t get worse it started to pour with rain.

Morning of the Battle of Agincourt, 25th October 1415

On 25th October, St Crispin’s day, the two sides prepared for battle. The French though weren’t to be rushed and at 8.00am, laughing and joking, they ate breakfast. The English, cold and wet from the driving rain, ate whatever they had left in their depleted rations.

Following an initial stalemate, Henry decided he had nothing to lose and forced the French into battle and advanced. The English and Welsh archers moved to within 300 metres of the enemy and began to fire. This sparked the French into action and the first wave of French cavalry charged, the rain-soaked ground severely hindering their progress. The storm of arrows raining down upon them caused the French to become unnerved and they retreated into the way of the now advancing main army. With forces moving in every direction, the French were soon in total disarray. The field quickly turned into a quagmire, churned up by the feet of thousands of heavily-armoured men and horses. The English and Welsh archers, some ten ranks deep, rained tens of thousands of arrows down onto the mud trapped French and what followed was a bloodbath. The battle itself lasted just half an hour and between 6,000 and 10,000 French were killed whilst the English suffered losses in the hundreds.

After three hundred years the dominance of the longbow in weaponry was coming to an end and giving way to the age of muskets and guns. The last battle involving the longbow took place in 1644 at Tippermuir in Perthshire, Scotland during the English Civil War.


Battle of Agincourt

In 1413 King Henry IV of England died and was followed on the throne by Henry V. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) continued, with English kings claiming the throne of France and its territory and the French kings seeking to expel the English. In prosecuting the war, Henry V concluded an alliance with Duke John of Burgundy, who promised to remain neutral and be Henry V’s vassal in return for territorial gains at the expense of France. In April 1415 Henry V declared war on King Charles VI of France, assembled a force of 12,000 men at Southampton, and crossed the English Channel to land at the mouth of the Seine on August 10.

Beginning on August 13, Henry laid siege to the Channel port of Honfleur. Taking it on September 22, he expelled most of its French inhabitants, replacing them with Englishmen. Only the poorest Frenchmen were allowed to remain, and they had to take an oath of allegiance. The siege, disease, and garrison duties all depleted Henry V’s army, leaving only about 6,000 men.

For whatever reason Henry V then decided to march overland from Honfleur to Calais, moving without baggage or artillery. His army departed on October 6, covering as much as 18 miles a day in difficult conditions caused by heavy rains. The English found one ford after another blocked by French troops, so Henry V took the army eastward, up the Somme, to locate a crossing. High water and the French prevented this until he reached Athies (10 miles west of Péronne), where the English found an undefended crossing.

At Rouen the French raised a force of some 30,000 men under Charles d’Albert, constable of France. This force almost intercepted the English before they could get across the Somme. Henry V’s trail was not hard to find, marked as it was by burning French farmhouses. (Henry once remarked that war without fire was like “sausages without mustard.”)

D’Albert got in front of the English and set up a blocking position on the main road to Calais near the Chateau of Agincourt, where Henry’s troops met them on October 24. Henry’s force faced an army many times his own in size. His men were short of supplies, and enraged local inhabitants were killing English foragers and stragglers. Shaken by the prospects, Henry V ordered his prisoners released and offered to return Honfleur and pay for any damages he had inflicted in return for safe passage to Calais. The French, with a numerical advantage of up to five to one, were in no mood to make concessions. They demanded that Henry V renounce his claims in France to everything except Guyenne, which he refused to do.

The French nobles were eager to join battle and pressed d’Albert for an attack, but he resisted their demands that day. That night Henry V ordered absolute silence, which the French took as a sign of demoralization. Daybreak on October 25 found the English at one end of a defile slightly more than 1,000 yards wide and flanked by heavy woods. The road to Calais ran down its middle. Open fields on either side of the road had been recently plowed and were sodden from the heavy rains.

Drawing on English success in the battles of Crécy and Poitiers, Henry V drew up his 800 to 1,000 men-at-arms and 5,000 archers in three major groups, or “battles.” The “battles,” in one line, consisted of men-at-arms and pikemen, while the archers were located between the three “battles” and on the flanks, where they enfiladed forward about 100 yards or so to the woods on either side.

About a mile away d’Albert also deployed in three groups, but because of French numbers and the narrowness of the defile these were one behind the other. The first rank consisted of dismounted men and some crossbow men, along with perhaps 500 horsemen on the flanks the second was the same without the horsemen and the third consisted almost entirely of horsemen. Each commander hoped to fight a defensive battle, Henry in particular so that he might employ his archers.

Finally, in late morning when the French had failed to move, Henry staged a cautious advance of about a half mile and then halted, his men taking up the same formation as before, with the leading archers on the flanks only about 300 yards from the first French ranks. The bowmen then pounded sharpened stakes into the ground facing toward the enemy, their tips at breast height of a horse.

Henry’s movement had the desired effect. D’Albert was no longer able to resist the demands of his fellow nobles to attack the English and ordered the advance. The mounted knights on either flank moved forward well ahead of the slow-moving and heavily armored men-at-arms. It was Crécy and Poitiers all over again, with the longbow decisive. A large number of horsemen, slowed by the soggy ground, were cut down by English arrows that caught them in enfilade. The remainder were halted at the English line.

The cavalry attack was defeated long before the first French men-at-arms, led in person by d’Albert, arrived. Their heavy body armor and the mud exhausted the French, but most reached the thin English line and, by sheer weight of numbers, drove it back. The English archers then fell on the closely packed French from the flanks, using swords, axes, and hatchets to cut them down. The unencumbered Englishmen had the advantage, as they could more easily move in the mud around their French opponents. Within minutes, almost all in the first French rank had been either killed or captured.

The second French rank then moved forward, but it lacked the confidence and cohesion of the first. Although losses were heavy, many of its number were able to retire to re-form for a new attack with the third “battle” of mounted knights. At this point Henry V learned that the French had attacked his baggage train, and he ordered the wholesale slaughter of the French prisoners, fearing that he would not be strong enough to meet attacks from both the front and the rear. The rear attack, however, turned out to be only a sally from the Chateau of Agincourt by a few men-at-arms and perhaps 600 French peasants. The English easily repulsed the final French attack, which was not pressed home. Henry V then led several hundred mounted men in a charge that dispersed what remained of the French army. The archers then ran forward, killing thousands of the Frenchmen lying on the field by stabbing them through gaps in their armor or bludgeoning them to death.

In less than four hours the English had defeated a force significantly larger than their own. At least 5,000 Frenchmen died in the battle, and another 1,500 were taken prisoner. Among those who perished were many prominent French nobles, including d’Albert. The Duke d’Orléans and Marshal Jean Bouciquan were among the captured. Henry V reported English losses as 13 men-at-arms and 100 footmen killed, but this figure is too low. English losses were probably 300 killed. Among the badly wounded was Henry V’s brother, the Duke of Gloucester.

Henry V then marched to Calais, taking the prisoners who would be ransomed. The army reached Calais on October 29. In mid-November Henry V returned to England.

The loss of so many prominent French nobles in the Battle of Agincourt greatly increased Duke John of Burgundy’s influence to the point of dictating French royal policy. Henry V returned to France in 1417 and went on to conquer Normandy by the end of 1419, with the exception of Mont St. Michel. In 1420 at Troyes he concluded peace with Charles VI, who agreed to the marriage of Henry to his daughter Catherine. The French king also disowned his son, the dauphin Charles, and acknowledged Henry as his heir. Over the next two years Henry consolidated his hold over northern France, but unfortunately for the English cause he died in 1422, leaving as heir to the thrones of England and France a son just nine months old.

Rujukan Hibbert, Christopher. Agincourt. New York: Dorset, 1978. Keegan, John. The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo & the Somme. New York: Vintage Books, 1977. Seward, Desmond. The Hundred Years’ War: The English in France, 1337-1453. New York: Atheneum, 1978. Sumption, Jonathan. The Hundred Years’ War: Trial by Battle. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.


The Key Factor: Mud

Once the English archers were in place, the comparatively thin line of English knights kneeled awkwardly in their armor to make the sign of the cross before advancing on foot over the waterlogged field behind the archers to a point within 300 yards of the French. The sight of the smaller English army boldly advancing so excited the mounted French knights on each flank that they largely abandoned discipline to break into a ragged attack, shouting, “Montjoie! Saint Denis!” As they spurred their horses onward, the soggy ground beneath them was churned into clinging mud, which slowed the charge immediately. Nonetheless, cheers rose from the other French nobles standing behind them as they caught the excitement and moved forward as well.

As might have been anticipated, horses quickly began to slip in the mud. As this happened, the French attackers converging from both flanks were thrown into confusion by devastating volleys from the English archers, dispatched in four clouds of arrows. Although the French knights’ armor deflected many of the arrows, their less-well-clad horses were not so fortunate—they stumbled or dropped in their tracks. Some knights were pitched to the ground. Riderless mounts bolted about, colliding with advancing French foot soldiers. By now, horses and men on the field were ankle-deep in mud. The French artillery, intimidated by the first flight of arrows, had pulled back rather than face more steel-tipped projectiles.

Less than a hundred of the mounted French knights ever reached the spike-barricade placed by the English archers. The rest lay mired in the churned-up mud—dead, wounded, or stumbling about in a daze. French cavalry commander Guillaume de Saveuse was one of the dead, killed by a mallet blow or stab wound through his armor-joint after his horse impaled itself on one of the spikes. Without pause, the second line of French began to advance on foot, moving ponderously through the mud in face of flights of arrows. Although it continued to be a cool day, the knights began to sweat in their 60 pounds of armor from the exertion of trudging through the mud. As they proceeded, many could not avoid stiff-legging their way over the dead and wounded, causing any number to suffocate in the mud.

As French knights attack the English line, their horses become bogged down in the mud as English archers continue to pour deadly fire into their ranks.

The footing grew worse as the centers of both armies locked together in hand-to-hand combat. Slowly the reinforced French attack drove the English center back, and the battle lost its form in the confined area between the woods. By one account, Henry “fought not as a king but as a knight, leading the way when possible, giving and receiving cruel blows.” The English middle rallied as the right flank engaged, but the obese York was trampled under foot. He either suffocated or suffered a heart attack, since his armor-clad body was found afterward without a wound. The Earl of Oxford was killed also, but Henry called upon Robert Howard, one of the ship captains and a friend of his youth, to take the earl’s place. Howard rose to the occasion as the English archers dropped their longbows to wade into the fray, wielding their axes and short swords.

By now, the French knights were so crammed together they could barely swing their own weapons, and when they were knocked down they found it impossible to get up from the mud in their heavy armor. The more nimble English archers made many French knights lame by slashing their short axes against the backs of their adversaries’ knees. Those sprawling on the ground were helpless to protect themselves from the archers, who mercilessly thrust their daggers through the slits of visors or into the mail covering armpits or groins. The Duke of Alenon, finding himself cut off and surrounded, shouted his surrender to King Henry, who was a few yards away coming to his brother Gloucester’s aid. Before the king could intercede, however, Alenon was slashed and beaten to death by swarming English archers. The Duke of Brabant, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, borrowed a lesser nobleman’s armor and galloped into the fray only to be unhorsed and quickly dispatched by archers who did not recognize his worth because his borrowed armor did not mark him as a man of distinction.

In the first two hours of the three-hour battle, the French suffered a staggering 5,000 killed in a bloodbath that included three dukes, five counts, and 90 barons. By this stage, more English knights and archers were gathering up prisoners than continuing to fight. (A French noble would fetch enough in ransom to make a poor man comparatively comfortable for life.) Meanwhile, the knights in the third French line watched the disastrous scene. In a cruel mix-up, Henry ordered the French prisoners killed when he heard that a newly arrived enemy force (actually bands of local peasants) was attacking his lightly guarded rear. The order was only fitfully obeyed by the English nobles, who found it morally repugnant to kill their French counterparts after they had surrendered, and Henry had to deputize a force of 200 low-born archers to carry out the brutal and unnecessary slaughter. When it became evident that the uncommitted third French line, daunted by the fate of the first two lines, was withdrawing from the battlefield, Henry rescinded his order, but by then dozens of duly surrendered French nobles had met a most ignoble fate in the bloodstained mud at Agincourt.


Was the V-sign invented at the battle of Agincourt?

In a nutshell, no! This idea is a twentieth-century myth although so far it has proved impossible to find where and when a link to Agincourt was first suggested.

The myth is that the French had threatened to cut off the index and middle fingers of any archers they captured. But since the English won, the archers then stuck up these two fingers to show they still had them.

Two fifteenth-century narratives mention mutilation. In a chronicle written by Thomas Walsingham, a monk of St Albans, ‘the French published that they wished no-one to be spared except certain named lords and the king himself. They announced that the rest would be killed or have their limbs horribly mutilated. Because of this our men were much excited to rage and took heart, encouraging one another against the event.’

In chronicles written by the Burgundians Jean le Fèvre and Jean de Waurin they invent a battle speech for Henry in which the king is reported to have said ‘that the French had boasted that if any English archers were captured they would cut off the three fingers of their right hand so that neither man or horse would ever again by killed by their arrow fire’.

None of these texts says that the victorious archers stuck up their fingers after the battle. Nor is there evidence that archers taken prisoner ever had their fingers cut off, despite the scenes in Bernard Cornwell’s novel, Azincourt, of what happened to English archers at the attack on Soissons in 1414.

Mutilation was used as a military punishment in English armies in this period. In disciplinary ordinances issued in 1385, which were used again for the campaign of 1415, foot archers who cried ‘to horse’ without good cause or who went out foraging without permission might have their right ear cut off as punishment. If servants or pages started quarrels in the host, they might have their left ear cut off. But commanders were hardly likely to have punishment which would damage the fighting capability of their men. By contrast, military ordinances were tough on prostitutes. In set of military ordinances issued by Henry V at some point in his reign, prostitutes were ordered not to come within a mile of the army or to be within garrisons. If they violated this order a second time, they were to have their left arm broken.

Photograph of Winston Churchill famously making the v-sign for victory in 1943, taken from Wikipedia and is in the Public Domain


Against All Odds: THE BATTLE OF AGINCOURT

If you’re a fan of Shakespeare or simply a military history person, then you know about King Henry V. He was a monarch in England from 1413 to 1422. King Henry V was one of the most renowned English kings.

He led two successful of France and eventually full control of the French throne. He was known for one particular achievement, which was in the Battle of Agincourt.

French soldiers assembled onto the battlefield. Moments later they realized that the English had set up stakes guarding their location. This resulted in many riders to be stuck between the pieces of sharp wood. This made the soldiers an even easier target.

As the cavalry quickly retreated back, the first-division marched forward. Pushing through the muddy fields and turning their heads away from the winter sun, they bravely marched towards the English line.

Being on foot made it easier to climb through the stakes, but harder to march across a field full of mud. The French lost many of its soldiers during those moments, but they continued their walk toward the English.

As the French finally arrived at the English lines, they started an attack. The English soon realized that their longbows were ineffective now, due to the armies being closer to each other.

They rushed forward with axes and swords, instead. This led to a large number of wounds and deaths leaving a pile of nobles and soldiers lifeless on the battlefield.

Seeing the first-division being slaughtered, the second-division of the French army began their journey to the other side of the field. Since the first-division had not yet cleared the path it got crowded really fast.

The French retreated, deciding that they had no chance of victory. Many of the nobles gave up their lives. A few of the first-division survived, the second-division was running away and the third stood quietly on the other side of the battle-field.

Led by a living noble of the French army, some soldiers were extracted from the battlefield to attack the English camp. Henry, being alert of his surroundings, quickly sent some of his men to protect their camp.

During this time, the third-division also made a move. They tried to counter-attack the English with all they had. The raid on the camp was stopped and the third-division was also massacred. Soon, the third-division retreated, but the English still held many of their soldiers captive.

I wish I could say that the battle ended in peace, with the French running away and the hostages left alive. But this was not the case.

The French soldiers were killed. Their arms and feet were cut off, and those who resisted were stabbed in the eye.

This battle made Henry V one of the most popular English kings to have reigned. He and his army had won a heroic victory in the worst circumstances.

Sadly, his reign did not last. He died soon after, but not before expanding his kingdom. His efforts ensured that his son would be the heir to the French throne.

The English domination continued until 1429 when Jean d' Arc arrived at the siege of Orleans and signaled the return of the French, which resulted in the ultimate winner of the Hundred years war.


Tonton videonya: Battle of Agincourt 1415 AD - Hundred Years War (Julai 2022).


Komen:

  1. Mikajin

    Terima kasih kepada Afur untuk jawatan yang berguna. Saya membacanya sepenuhnya dan belajar banyak nilai untuk diri saya sendiri.

  2. Demasone

    Any other options?

  3. Samusar

    Comrades, why are there so many emotions?

  4. Gill

    looked at the big screen!



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