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Raja-raja Rom - Caesar dan Pompei

Raja-raja Rom - Caesar dan Pompei

Mengapa nama Pompei Magnus tidak dipuji sama seperti nama Caesar sebagai penguasa Rom, memandangkan Magnus adalah orang yang pertama kali menguasai Rom?


Pompey tidak pernah mencapai kekuatan tertinggi yang dilakukan oleh Caesar (sebentar, sebelum dia dibunuh). Walaupun dia kadang-kadang (seperti ketika dia memerangi lanun atau ketika dia menjadi konsul sine collegio pada akhir 50-an BCE) telah hebat imperium, dia selalu enggan atau tidak sombong pada dirinya sendiri mata air kekuatan ini. Oleh itu, dia selalu menjadi anggota pengaturan perkongsian kuasa atau juara parti konservatif / reaksioner. Jadi dia tidak boleh dikira sebagai penguasa.

Oleh itu, saya mesti mengatakan bahawa beberapa sarjana menyokong pandangan yang anda cadangkan - bahawa Pompey dapat dilihat sebagai yang pertama princeps. Tidak menjadi profesional, saya tidak mempunyai rujukan siap untuk itu sekarang, tetapi beberapa orang googling mendorong saya untuk membenarkan pernyataan ini (hlm. 240 di sana):

Pompey the Great, yang dianggap oleh beberapa orang sebagai princeps pertama, memiliki pengaruh yang tak tertandingi di Rom, yang bertentangan dengan sistem Republik yang membatasi penyatuan pengaruh seperti itu (Beard dan Crawford 85).

EDIT: Saya menjumpainya! Syme yang hebat sendiri menulis saran yang tidak dapat dilupakan bahawa sekiranya Pompey menang dia akan dibunuh di kaki patungnya sendiri oleh lelaki terhormat.


Biografi Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar, dibesarkan dalam keluarga patrician terkenal, adalah orang yang bertanggungjawab atas kejatuhan Republik Rom. Walaupun begitu, dia dianggap sebagai pemimpin dan ahli politik yang hebat yang setelah berkempen menentang Pompey menjadi konsul. Dia juga terkenal kerana menaklukkan Gaul dan menulis buku harian yang mengagumkan yang menggambarkan usaha perangnya. Semua penguasa Rom setelah dia mengambil gelaran "Caesar", mungkin berharap sebahagian daripada kemasyhurannya juga menjadi milik mereka.

Masa muda Julius Caesar

Sejarah Julius Caesar bermula pada 12.07.102 atau 100 SM, ketika dia dilahirkan dalam keluarga yang merupakan bagian dari dinasti Julius, yang dikatakan ditemui oleh Aeneas. Bapa Caesar bekerja sebagai pemuji dan meninggal ketika Caesar pada usia 16 tahun menjadi yatim piatu kepadanya dan dua saudara perempuannya. Jadi penakluk masa depan dibesarkan oleh ibunya - Aurelia. Pada usia 17 tahun, dia mengahwini Cornelia, cucu perempuan Cornelius Cinna, yang merupakan pemimpin parti radikal. Tetapi kebahagiaannya tidak bertahan lama. Pada tahun 82 SM, setelah Lucius Cornelius Sulla memimpin revolusi balas yang berjaya, Sulla memerintahkan Caesar untuk menceraikan Cornelia. Caesar enggan melaksanakan perintah ini dan akan dibuang dan seluruh harta bendanya akan diambil dan kehilangan gelaran "flamens Dialis" - seorang pendeta Musytari. Rakan-rakan dan keluarga Caesar memohon kepadanya dan berkat dia didapati tidak bersalah. Tidak berpuas hati, Caesar pergi ke timur dan bergabung dengan tentera. Dia terbukti menjadi askar yang hebat dan bertempur dalam banyak pertempuran dan bahkan mendapat karangan bunga "korona vita" untuk keberanian.

Permulaan kerjaya politik Caesar

Pada tahun 79 SM, ketika Sulla meninggal, Caesar kembali ke Rom untuk memulakan karier politiknya dengan cara konvensional, dengan bertindak sebagai peguam bela pendakwaan - tentu saja, dalam kasusnya, terhadap kontra revolusioner Sullan. Tetapi tindakan ini tidak menghasilkan cara yang positif - Caesar tidak menjadi terkenal dan juga tidak mempunyai peluang lebih besar untuk dipilih untuk pejabat, jadi dia berangkat ke Rhodes pada tahun 78 SM. Dia diculik oleh lanun semasa perjalanannya dan dibebaskan setelah 40 hari setelah wang tebusan dibayar. Dia kembali ke Miletus di mana dia dengan cepat mengangkat pasukan angkatan laut dan memulakan perang melawan penguasa gergaji - dia menang dan menyalibkan penculiknya. Dia kembali ke Rom pada tahun 68 SM untuk pemakaman putrinya Julia, yang dia gunakan untuk alasan politik. Ini menghadapi penentangan isterinya, tetapi Caesar tidak memperhatikannya. Isterinya meninggal pada tahun yang sama. Selepas itu, Caesar mengelilingi Empayar untuk memulakan revolusi. Setelah rancangannya gagal, dia kembali ke Rom dan mengahwini Pompeia, saudara jauh Pompey. Ini adalah perkahwinan politik, yang membolehkan Ceasar menjadi teman rapat Pompey. Pada masa yang sama Caesar membuat perjanjian dengan musuh Pompey - Marcus Licinius Crassus. Pada tahun 65 SM Caesar menjadi salah satu kurle aediles. Dia mengambil banyak pinjaman pada masa itu dan menganjurkan sukan Olimpik, berkat ia menjadi terkenal. Dua tahun kemudian dia menjadi ketua paderi, tetapi pemilihan ini sangat kontroversial. Caesar juga merupakan bagian dari konspirasi Catiline, yang bertujuan untuk kudeta. Plot ini juga gagal, kerana tindakan Cicero, tetapi Caesar telah dikenal sebagai konspirator sejak itu.

Triumvirate pertama

Selepas penculikan Cicero, Caesar menjadi pemuji. Sayangnya, dia sering dikritik dan memutuskan untuk menculik, tetapi dipilih sebagai gabenor Sepanyol. Tetapi ketika dia berusaha meninggalkan Rom, dia dihentikan oleh pemiutangnya dan hanya dengan jaminan Marcus Licinius Crassus dia dapat pergi. Selama setahun dia menghabiskan waktu di Sepanyol, dia memimpin ekspedisi ketenteraan di luar perbatasan barat laut wilayahnya, di mana dia cukup menjarah untuk membayar tenteranya dan masih memiliki banyak kekayaan untuk dirinya sendiri. Dia ingin menggunakan emas untuk mendapatkan pejabat, tetapi senat tidak mengizinkannya untuk memulakan kempen pilihan raya sendiri. Oleh itu, Caesar menggunakan wang itu untuk membayar hutangnya dan membuat perjanjian dengan Pompey dan Marcus Licinius Crassus pada tahun 60BC. Seorang kaya dan komandan yang terkenal dan calon pejabat konsul menubuhkan triumvirate untuk memastikan bahawa apa-apa, yang boleh membahayakan mereka, tidak akan berlaku di Empayar Rom. Berkat perjanjian ini Caesar menjadi konsul pada tahun 59 SM. Dia memperkenalkan banyak pembaharuan yang menggembirakan rakan-rakannya. Pada masa yang sama Caesar menjadi gabenor Gaul.

Penaklukan Gaul

Pada 58 SM, Caesar memulakan penaklukannya terhadap Gaul. Tujuan utamanya adalah untuk menjadi sekaya mungkin. Untuk mewujudkan kedudukan yang aman di depan, dia harus menyingkirkan Jerman, yang juga ingin menaklukkan Gaul, dan setelah itu dia menyerang Britain. Dibutuhkan 7 tahun untuk Caesar menaklukkan Gaul keseluruhan dan hanya kerana bakat strategiknya yang sangat baik, kempen ini begitu singkat. Caesar tidak hanya menerima banyak harta benda tetapi juga kesetiaan para tenteranya, yang mengharapkan dia memimpin mereka ke pertempuran lain yang berjaya. Selepas kempen ini, Caesar memutuskan untuk tinggal di Gaul bersama tenteranya sehingga dia akan dipilih sebagai konsul baru, yang membuat para senator marah. Penentang politiknya mahu dia kembali ke Rom dan didakwa atas perkara yang telah dia lakukan ketika dia menjadi konsul. Caesar telah membuat keputusan, yang mengakibatkan kejatuhan republik Rom. Dia memimpin pasukannya menyeberangi sungai Rubicon dan mengatakan yang terkenal "Alea iacta est" dan memulakan perjalanan ke Rom pada Januari 49BC.

Kejatuhan Republik Rom

Tindakan Caesar mengakibatkan perang saudara. Untuk memaafkan dirinya, dia mengatakan ingin mempertahankan pengadilan, yang baru-baru ini diusir dari Roma. Pompey harus meninggalkan Rom dengan senator untuk melepaskan diri dari tentera Ceasar. Salah seorang rakan rapat Caesar, Labienus, meninggalkannya, tetapi Caesar memaafkannya. Tentera Caesar semasa perarakannya ke Rom tidak mengalami sebarang tentangan. Sebenarnya, tentera Pompey bertaburan atau bergabung dengan Caesar. Hasil perang ini, Caesar menjadi penakluk Itali. Tetapi ini tidak cukup baginya, dia berangkat ke Sepanyol, di mana Pompey berada. Ini mengakibatkan perdamaian antara komander pasukan dan Caesar dan perang dengan Sepanyol berakhir tanpa pertumpahan darah. Pada bulan Disember 49 SM Caesar kembali ke Rom, tetapi hanya selama 11 hari. Ini adalah masa yang diperlukan untuk terpilih sebagai konsul baru. Tidak lama selepas dia memimpin pasukannya ke timur dan bertempur dalam pertempuran di Yunani. Pompey melarikan diri ke Mesir, di mana dia dibunuh oleh Ptolemeus, yang ingin agar Caesar berada di sisinya.

Caesar dan Cleopatra

Pada masa yang sama berlaku perang saudara di Mesir antara Cleopatra dan abangnya. Cleopatra, mengetahui bahawa Caesar mempunyai tentera yang besar, menginginkannya berada di sisinya. Tetapi ketika dia bergabung dengannya, mereka tidak berhasil seperti yang mereka harapkan - mereka berakhir di istana Iskandariah, yang dikelilingi oleh penduduk setempat yang gila. Pertolongan datang pada tahun 47 SM. Tidak lama setelah Caesar meninggalkan Mesir, Cleopatra melahirkan anak lelaki Caesar, Cesarion.

Perang Caesar

Tujuan Caesar adalah penakluk seluruh dunia. Dia meneruskan perang dan meraih kemenangan atas seorang perampas di kerajaan Piemont. Selepas kemenangan ini dia mengatakan satu lagi frasa terkenal "veni, vidi, vici" - Saya datang, saya melihat, saya menang. Pada tahun 46 SM, Caesar menaklukkan Afrika utara dan tahun berikutnya Sepanyol, di mana dia berperang melawan anak-anak Pompey. Di antara pertempuran, Caesar kembali ke Rom, tetapi dia menghadapi masalah dengan menetapkan asas pemerintahannya.

Plot menentang Caesar

Sejak 59 SM Caesar telah dipilih sebagai konsul lima kali dan diktator tiga kali. Akhirnya, pada tahun 44BC ia menjadi diktator yang kekal. Ini dimaksudkan untuk menjadi gelaran seumur hidup dan sebenarnya. Pada 15 Mac 44BC dia dibunuh. Dia menerima 23 pukulan dengan belati dan hanya satu yang mematikan. Konspirator yang paling penting ialah Gaius Cassius Longinus dan Marcus Junius Brutus. "Et tu, Brute" ("Kamu juga, Brutus") adalah ekspresi Caesar tentang penderitaan tertentu kerana ditikam oleh seorang lelaki yang dia telah maafkan, percayai, dan cintai. Mereka adalah rakan rapat Caesar, tetapi dia memandang rendah mereka. Terima kasih kepada Caesar mereka telah mengumpulkan banyak kekayaan dan kedudukan tinggi, yang tidak dapat mereka tahan. Itulah sebabnya mereka membunuhnya. Secara formal, Ceasarion bukan anak lelaki Caesar, jadi sebelum dia meninggal Caesar telah memilih Gaius Octavius, cucu saudaranya, sebagai penggantinya. Pada 42 Januari pertama Caesar telah secara rasmi dinyatakan sebagai dewa bernama Divus Iulius (Ilahi Julius).

Pemakai pembaharu?

Bagaimana merakam kehidupan Caesar? Dia sememangnya seorang perampas. Dia mencapai kedudukannya berkat tenteranya dan itu adalah asas utama pemerintahannya. Dia memiliki kekuatan tanpa batas, yang merupakan tujuannya sepanjang hidupnya. Tetapi memikirkan Caesar, kita melihat bukan sahaja seorang perampas tetapi juga dalang dan pembaharu yang hebat. Dia melakukan semua yang dia mampu untuk memastikan undang-undang dan ketertiban di Rom, yang mula hancur setelah bertahun-tahun anarki. Huraian terbaik Caesar adalah oleh Cicero, salah satu musuh politiknya, dengan kata-kata: "Itulah sifat-sifat: sifat tenang dan baik menggembirakan fikiran yang hebat yang dia dengarkan tepat dan adil meminta dan tidak peduli dengan orang-orang yang paling berhati-hati dia pintar dan maju -melihat. Saya mengagumi maruah dan keadilan dan kepandaiannya ". Sebagai komandan dan ahli politik, dia menghilangkan kebencian terhadap musuhnya. Ada yang mendapat jawatan dan nasib tinggi. Caesar juga seorang penulis - dia menulis buku harian dan dia berminat dalam tatabahasa dan dia mengumpulkan karya seni. Karya-karya terbaiknya ialah Diaries dari Perang Gaul dan Diaries dari perang saudara. Kedua-dua mereka ditulis dalam bahasa Latin yang sangat baik dan indah. Itu adalah contoh bagaimana menuliskan pemikiran anda selama berabad-abad kemudian.


Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar adalah pemimpin Rom yang hebat di akhir Republik Rom. Julius Caesar dilahirkan tiga hari sebelum Idea Julai, pada 13 Julai pada tahun c. 100 SM. Keluarga ayahnya berasal dari keluarga patrician Julii, yang menelusuri keturunannya dengan raja pertama Rom, Romulus, dan dewi Venus. Ibu bapanya adalah Gaius Caesar dan Aurelia, anak perempuan Lucius Aurelius Cotta. Caesar dikaitkan dengan perkahwinan dengan Marius, yang menyokong popular, dan menentang Sulla, yang menyokong optimis.

Pada tahun 44 BCE konspirator yang mendakwa mereka takut Caesar bertujuan untuk menjadi raja yang dibunuh Caesar pada Ides bulan Mac.

  1. Julius Caesar adalah seorang jeneral, negarawan, penggubal undang-undang, orator, dan sejarawan.
  2. Dia tidak pernah kalah dalam perang.
  3. Caesar membetulkan kalendar.
  4. Dia dianggap telah membuat lembaran berita pertama, Acta Diurna, yang disiarkan di forum untuk membiarkan semua orang yang berminat membacanya mengetahui apa yang dilakukan Dewan dan Senat.
  5. Dia menghasut undang-undang yang berkekalan terhadap pemerasan.

Perhatikan bahawa walaupun kata Caesar menandakan penguasa maharaja Rom, dalam kasus Caesars yang pertama, itu hanya namanya. Julius Caesar bukan maharaja.


Raja-raja Rom

Kecuali dinyatakan sebaliknya, buku-buku ini dijual di Amazon.com. Pembelian anda melalui pautan ini akan menghasilkan komisen untuk pemilik laman web Royalty.nu.

Kaisar Rom & Keluarga Mereka

Maharaja Rom oleh David Potter. Bermula dengan masuknya Augustus, ini adalah tinjauan bergambar mewah Empayar Rom melalui kehidupan para maharaja.

Isteri Caesars: Seks, Kuasa, dan Politik di Empayar Rom oleh Annelise Freisenbruch. Menceritakan kisah lima abad wanita Rom yang kuat, dari Livia yang terkenal dan Julia yang skandal hingga Galla Placidia, yang ditangkap oleh penjajah Goth dan berkahwin dengan salah seorang raja-raja mereka.

Kamus Poket Kaisar Rom oleh Paul Roberts. Memperkenalkan 27 maharaja penting, termasuk Augustus, Trajan, Septimus Severus, Nero, dan Caligula. Digambarkan dengan duit syiling, perhiasan, patung, dan monumen kuno.

Lives of the Caesars yang disunting oleh Anthony Barrett. Menceritakan kisah 12 penguasa Rom yang paling berpengaruh, termasuk pemimpin terkenal seperti Nero dan Caligula, dan yang kurang terkenal seperti Diocletian dan Vespasian. Dengan ilustrasi, garis masa sejarah Rom, dan carta dinasti.

Ten Caesars: Kaisar Rom Dari Augustus hingga Constantine oleh Barry Strauss. Meneliti warisan Rom melalui kehidupan Augustus, Tiberius, Nero, Vespasian, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Diocletian, dan Constantine.

Maharaja Julio-Claudian

The Sons of Caesar: Dinasti Pertama Imperial Rom oleh Philip Matyszak. Meninjau sejarah panjang keluarga Julian dan Claudian di Rom. Inti dari kisah ini adalah kehidupan enam orang - Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, dan Nero - yang mengubah Rom dari demokrasi menjadi milik peribadi.

Dinasti: Kebangkitan dan Kejatuhan House of Caesar oleh Tom Holland. Sejarah mengagumkan lima maharaja Rom pertama: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, dan Nero. Ini adalah susulan dari buku sebelumnya Holland Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic.

The Caesar Dua Belas oleh Matthew Dennison. Biografi maharaja Rom Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus dan Domitian.

Aspek Sejarah Rom, 31 SM - 117 M oleh Richard Alston. Panduan untuk sejarah Romawi awal dengan bab-bab pada setiap maharaja, meneroka kejayaan dan kegagalan pemerintahan mereka.

Membina Autokrasi: Aristokrat dan Maharaja di Julio-Claudian Rom oleh Matthew B. Roller. Bagaimana rejim kekaisaran berjaya membangun dirinya sendiri, dan bagaimana golongan elit Rom memahaminya.

The Ruler House: Kekuasaan dan Privasi Pertandingan di Julio-Claudian Rome oleh Harriet Fertik. Bagaimana rumah tangga maharaja dan ruang yang disebutnya sebagai rumah konsepsi Romawi mengenai peraturan satu orang.

Kehidupan dan Kematian Imperial

Maharaja Rom Lengkap: Kehidupan Imperial di Mahkamah dan Kempen oleh Michael Sommer. Bagaimana maharaja menghabiskan kehidupan mereka sehari-hari, menjalankan kerajaan, dan menguruskan isteri, istana, dan pegawai mereka. Termasuk biografi semua maharaja. Bergambar.

Praetorian: Kebangkitan dan Kejatuhan Pengawal Imperial Rom oleh Guy de la B & eacutedoy & egravere. Diasaskan oleh Augustus sekitar 27 SM, Pengawal Praetorit elit menjadi pemain politik yang kuat. Sangat setia kepada beberapa maharaja, mereka menggulingkan mereka yang tidak menyenangkan mereka.

Riding for Caesar: Pengawal Kuda Kaisar Rom oleh Michael P. Speidel. Mengikuti pengawal kuda kaisar dari perhimpunan mereka untuk menyelamatkan Caesar di Noviodunum pada tahun 52 SM. ke tempat terakhir mereka bersama Maxentius di Jambatan Milvian.

Bunuh Caesar! Pembunuhan di Empayar Rom Awal oleh Rose Mary Sheldon. Tiga perempat pemimpin Rom dibunuh, dan ancaman terbesar datang dari mereka yang paling dekat dengan maharaja.

Emperors Don't Die in Bed oleh Fik Meijer, diterjemahkan oleh S.J. Leinbach. Pengenalan umum yang meriah kepada maharaja Rom ini memusatkan perhatian pada kematian luar biasa mereka, dan apa yang diberitahu oleh hari-hari terakhir mereka mengenai kehidupan mereka.

Maharaja dan Ketuhanan

Kepujian Syurgawi oleh Ittai Gradel adalah mengenai pemujaan maharaja Rom, dari Caesar hingga Constantine.

Pengasingan Caesar dan Augustus: Precedents, Consequences, Implications oleh Michael Koortbojian. Menangani masalah-masalah yang berkaitan dengan pembaharuan dalam sistem kekaisaran baru yang kompleks.

Makam Imperial Rom pada Zaman Akhir Akhir oleh Mark J. Johnson. Mengkaji simbolisme dan fungsi mausolea Rom kemudian yang berfungsi sebagai kuil dan kuil kepada maharaja yang dirahmati.

Buku oleh Ahli Sejarah Kuno Livy

Sejarah Awal Rom: Buku I-V Sejarah Rom Dari Asasnya oleh Livy, diterjemahkan oleh Aubrey De Selincourt. Ahli sejarah Livy meninggal pada tahun 17 Masihi.

Rom dan Itali oleh Livy, diterjemahkan oleh Aubrey De Selincourt. Mengandungi jilid 6 hingga 10 sejarah Livy di Rom yang merangkumi Perang Samnite.

(Catatan: Buku 11 hingga 20 sejarah Livy di Rom tidak lagi wujud.)

The War With Hannibal oleh Livy, diterjemahkan oleh Aubrey De Selincourt. Kisah Livy mengenai Perang Punic Kedua, yang terdiri daripada jilid 21-30 dari sejarahnya mengenai Rom.

Rome and the Mediterranean oleh Livy, diterjemahkan oleh Henry Bettenson. Termasuk buku 31 hingga 45 sejarah Livy.

(Buku 46 hingga 142 sejarah Rom Livy tidak lagi wujud.)

Akaun Kuno Lain Sejarah Rom

The Annals of Imperial Rome oleh Cornelius Tacitus, diterjemahkan oleh Michael Grant. Kisah Rom kuno mengenai pemerintahan Tiberius, Claudius, dan Nero. (Bahagian mengenai Caligula tidak lagi wujud.)

The Twelve Caesars oleh Suetonius, diterjemahkan oleh Robert Graves. Pengenalan yang menarik, mudah dibaca, sangat menghiburkan kehidupan 12 maharaja Rom yang pertama. Dilahirkan pada tahun 60 M., Suetonius bertugas sebagai setiausaha maharaja Hadrian.

Cara Menjadi Maharaja yang Buruk: Panduan Kuno untuk Pemimpin Yang Sangat Mengerikan oleh Suetonius, diterjemahkan dan diedit oleh Josiah Osgood. Menyediakan terjemahan baru dari biografi Suetonius yang mengejutkan dari Julius Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula, dan Nero.

Sejarah Rom oleh Velleius Paterculus, disunting oleh J. C. Yardley dan Anthony A. Barrett. Menelusuri sejarah Rom dari Romulus dan asas Rom hingga pemerintahan Kaisar Tiberius. Terjemahan baru ini merangkumi nota, peta, dan glosari.

Empayar Rom Kemudian oleh Ammianus Marcellinus. Penulis, yang hidup pada abad ke-4 Masihi, menulis 31 buku sejarah kerajaan Rom dari maharaja Nerva hingga kematian maharaja Timur Valens. Hanya 18 buku terakhir, sekitar tahun 353 hingga 378, yang masih bertahan.

Empayar Rom Kemudian oleh Ammianus Marcellinus, diterjemahkan oleh Walter Hamilton. Versi ringkas sejarah Ammianus di kemudian hari Rom.

Sejarah Empayar Rom

Ribut Sebelum Ribut: Permulaan Akhir Republik Rom oleh Mike Duncan. Mengabadikan tahun 133-80 SM, masa pertempuran berdarah, intrik politik, dan drama manusia.

The Origin of Empire: Rome From the Republic to Hadrian oleh David Potter. Sejarah Kerajaan Rom awal dari tahun 264 SM, ketika tentera Rom melintasi Sicily, hingga kematian Hadrian pada tahun 138 CE.

Kamus Empayar Rom oleh Matthew E. Bunson. Lebih dari 1,900 entri yang merangkumi lebih dari 500 tahun sejarah Rom, dari Julius Caesar dan Perang Gallik hingga kejatuhan Romulus Augustus, maharaja Rom yang terakhir. Dari Oxford University Press.

Panduan Lengkap Idiot untuk Empayar Rom oleh Eric Nelson, Ph.D. Gambaran keseluruhan sejarah dan budaya Rom dari 800 SM hingga abad ke-15 Masihi.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World disunting oleh John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, dan Oswyn Murray.

Orang Rom: Pengenalan oleh Antony Kamm. Pengenalan umum dan ringkas untuk semua aspek budaya Rom. Termasuk gambar dan peta.

Kronologi Empayar Rom disunting oleh Timothy Venning. Rujukan kronologi bagi seluruh negara Rom dan negara jirannya. Acara setiap tahun diliputi secara terperinci, termasuk konsul terpilih, pertempuran besar, acara politik dan sosial.

Dunia Rom, 44 SM-AD 180 oleh Martin Goodman. Mengkaji pergantungan maharaja Rom pada pertubuhan ketenteraan yang besar. Termasuk bahagian panjang mengenai perubahan agama yang penting dalam tempoh ini.

Rom Purba: Sejarah Ketenteraan dan Politik oleh Christopher S. Mackay. Dari asal-usul kota pada Zaman Besi Itali hingga pemendapan maharaja terakhir pada tahun 476 Masihi.

The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome oleh Chris Scarre. Memadankan grafik yang jelas dengan teks bermaklumat, atlas ini memberikan gambaran yang baik mengenai sejarah Rom dari abad kelapan SM. kepada kebangkitan teokrasi Kristian milenium kemudian. (Semak & salin Amazon.com)

Penurunan dan Kejatuhan Gibbon

Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire oleh Edward Gibbon, disunting oleh David Womersley. Versi ringkas sejarah panjang Gibbon pada zaman terakhir Kerajaan Rom. Untuk versi yang tidak ringkas, lihat di bawah.

Penurunan dan Kejatuhan Empayar Rom - Jilid 1, 2, dan 3 oleh Edward Gibbon. Ditulis pada abad ke-18, karya Gibbon dianggap sebagai karya agung.

Penurunan dan Kejatuhan Empayar Rom - Jilid 6 oleh Edward Gibbon. Jilid terakhir siri ini.

Buku-buku lain the Empire's End

Patricians and Kaisar: Raja Terakhir Empayar Rom Barat oleh Ian Hughes. Biografi ringkas mengenai mereka yang menggunakan kuasa, dari pembunuhan Aetius pada tahun 454 hingga kematian Julius Nepos pada tahun 480.

Blood of the Caesars: Bagaimana Pembunuhan Germanicus Menjelang Kejatuhan Rom oleh Stephen Dando-Collins. Mencadangkan bahawa pembunuhan Germanicus - cucu Mark Antony, anak angkat Tiberius, ayah Caligula, dan datuk Nero - menyebabkan kejatuhan kerajaan Rom empat abad kemudian.

Tragedi Empayar: Dari Constantine hingga Kehancuran Rom Itali oleh Michael Kulikowski. Sejarah politik yang bergolak dua abad yang menyebabkan kematian Empayar Rom.

Republik Mortal: Bagaimana Rom Menjatuhkan Kezaliman oleh Edward J. Watts. Mengapa Republik Rom runtuh - dan bagaimana ia boleh terus berkembang.

Caligula

Caligula: Penyalahgunaan Kuasa oleh Anthony A. Barrett. Meneliti sama ada Caligula benar-benar orang yang jahat.

Caligula: The Emperor Mad Rome oleh Stephen Dando-Collins. Mengabadikan intrik istana yang menyebabkan Caligula menjadi maharaja, dan memperincikan kengerian pemerintahan maniknya.

Caligula oleh Sam Wilkinson. Biografi ini meneliti peristiwa-peristiwa pemerintahan Caligula untuk menyelidiki apakah kekhilafannya layak sepenuhnya.

Caligula: Biografi oleh Aloys Winterling. Menetapkan kisah maharaja ke dalam konteks sistem politik untuk menjelaskan kekejamannya yang terkenal.

Caligula: Jeneral yang tidak dijangka oleh Lee Fratantuono. Sejarah ketenteraan ini menawarkan penilaian baru Caligula sebagai ahli strategi ketenteraan yang sangat kompeten.

Caligula's Nemi Ships oleh penyunting Charles River. Sejarah kapal mewah misteri maharaja Rom, yang dipulihkan - dan hampir musnah - pada abad ke-20.

Claudius

Claudius oleh Barbara Levick. Menilai kembali pemerintahan maharaja Rom Claudius untuk mengungkapkan seorang ahli politik yang cerdas bertekad untuk mempertahankan kedudukannya sebagai pemerintah.

Claudius Caesar: Imej dan Kekuatan di Empayar Rom Awal oleh Josiah Osgood. Satu kajian yang digambarkan mengenai pemerintahan yang penuh gejolak Kaisar Claudius (41-54 Masehi).

Claudius dalam Fiksyen

Saya, Claudius: Dari Autobiografi Tiberius Claudius, Lahir 10 SM, Dibunuh dan Diagungkan 54 M. oleh Robert Graves. Bacaan yang baik, autobiografi fiksyen ini ditetapkan pada zaman kegemilangan dan kemerosotan Kerajaan Rom. Yang terbaik adalah Claudius sendiri, gagap yang membiarkan semua orang menganggap dirinya bodoh (untuk mengelakkan diri dari diracun) tetapi yang menyatakan dirinya dalam naratif sebagai pemerhati yang cerdik dan suka. (Ulasan ini & salin Amazon.com.)

Claudius the God and Isterinya Messalina oleh Robert Graves. Sekuel saya, Claudius menceritakan kisah pemerintahan Claudius selama 13 tahun sebagai maharaja Rom.

Tahun Empat Maharaja

AD69: Kaisar, Tentera dan Anarki oleh Nic Fields. Setelah kematian maharaja Rom Nero, jeneral kerajaan jatuh ke dalam perjuangan kekuasaan berdarah untuk memutuskan siapa yang akan memakai ungu kekaisaran.

69 Masihi: Tahun Empat Maharaja oleh M. Gwyn Morgan. Antara bunuh diri Nero pada 68 Jun dan kemenangan Vespasian pada 69 Disember, tiga maharaja yang lain berkuasa di Rom: Galba Otho yang tua, ketat, konservatif, yang pernah menjadi teman baik Nero dan Vitellius yang sombong dan sombong.

Krisis Penggantian Rom 96-99 AD dan Pemerintahan Nerva oleh John D. Grainger. Menerangkan bagaimana dan mengapa maharaja terkenal Domitian dibunuh, peraturan penggantinya Nerva, dan pengganti Nerva sendiri, Trajan, yang menjadi maharaja yang disegani.

The Histories oleh Tacitus, diterjemahkan oleh Kenneth Wellesley. Menggambarkan "Empat Kaisar" yang pembunuhan, & "69 AD, ketika Kerajaan Rom hancur akibat perang saudara. Edisi Penguin Classics.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius oleh Anthony R. Birley. Kajian ilmiah tentang maharaja yang manusiawi dan sepanjang pemerintahannya yang panjang, yang sering diselingi oleh perang.

Marcus Aurelius: Kehidupan oleh Frank McLynn. Biografi maharaja Rom yang juga ahli falsafah, berdasarkan semua sumber asli yang ada.

Marcus Aurelius in Love oleh Marcus Aurelius, pengenalan dan terjemahan oleh Amy Richlin. Kumpulan surat cinta yang penuh semangat antara orator Rom Marcus Cornelius Fronto dan maharaja masa depan Marcus Aurelius.

Falsafahnya

Buku Panduan Kaisar: Terjemahan Baru Meditasi oleh Marcus Aurelius, diterjemahkan oleh C. Scot Hicks dan David V. Hicks. Refleksi falsafah maharaja Rom abad ke-2 (asalnya ditulis dalam bahasa Yunani). Marcus Aurelius adalah bapa kepada maharaja Commodus.

Seorang Sahabat kepada Marcus Aurelius yang diedit oleh Marcel van Ackeren Koleksi karangan ini menerokai biografi, latar belakang, dan peranan maharaja sebagai pemimpin dan penggubal undang-undang.

Benteng Dalam: Meditasi Marcus Aurelius oleh Pierre Hadot. Kajian mengenai falsafah-maharaja, Stoicism, dan budaya Rom pada abad kedua.

Marcus Aurelius: Panduan untuk Berpusing oleh William O. Stephens. Pengenalan ringkas mengenai kehidupan dan tulisan Maharaja Rom Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

Cara Berfikir Seperti Maharaja Rom: Falsafah Stoik Marcus Aurelius oleh Donald Robertson. Prinsip-prinsip Stoicism yang diajarkan melalui kisah penyokongnya yang paling terkenal.

Hadrian

Hadrian: Maharaja Resah oleh Anthony R. Birley. Meneliti kehidupan peribadi Hadrian - termasuk perkahwinan yang tidak bahagia dan ikatan homoseksual yang setia - dan karya awamnya. (Ulasan ini & salin Amazon.com.)

Hadrian dan Kemenangan Rom oleh Anthony Everitt. Biografi seorang maharaja Rom yang berani dan cerdik yang merupakan pemburu, penyair, dan pelajar falsafah.

Hadrian: Empayar & Konflik oleh Thorsten Opper. Penilaian baru mengenai keperibadian, peraturan, dan peranan tentera kaisar Rom, yang digambarkan dengan karya seni dan objek utama.

Tembok Hadrian oleh Adrian Goldsworthy. Penyelidikan sejarah dan arkeologi yang menyingkirkan fakta dari legenda sambil meletakkan tembok di tempat yang lebih luas di Rom Britain.

Mengikuti Hadrian: Perjalanan Abad Kedua Melalui Empayar Rom oleh Elizabeth Speller. Biografi ini menggambarkan maharaja sebagai pembangun dan pengembara yang tidak sabar, membimbing pembaca dalam lawatan besar ke Empayar Rom yang paling hebat, dari perbatasan Inggeris yang mandul hingga ke kemegahan kota Rom itu sendiri.

Hadrian dan Bandar Empayar Rom oleh Mary Taliaferro Boatwright. Penyelidikan menyeluruh mengenai kehidupan bandar yang hidup di bawah pemerintahan Hadrian.

Fiksyen

Memoirs of Hadrian oleh Marguerite Yourcenar, diterjemahkan oleh Grace Frick. Novel yang menggambarkan kembali masa kanak-kanak Hadrian yang sukar, kemenangan dan kebalikannya, dan akhirnya, sebagai maharaja, penataan semula dunia yang dilanda perang.

The Emperor oleh Georg Ebers. Novel mengenai maharaja Hadrian, ditulis oleh ahli Mesir abad ke-19.

Lady of the Eternal City oleh Kate Quinn. Sabina yang elegan dan rahsia mesti menjaga kedamaian antara dua musuh yang mematikan: suaminya Hadrian, maharaja Rom yang hebat dan jahat, dan pahlawan yang dipukul, Vix, cinta pertamanya.

Elagabalus

Jenayah Elagabalus: Kehidupan dan Warisan Maharaja Decadent Boy Rom oleh Martijn Icks. Maharaja muda Elagabalus menjadikan dirinya dewa, bermain-main, menjadi bahan khabar angin yang tidak bernas, dan dibunuh oleh pengawalnya sendiri pada usia 18 tahun. Biografi ini membezakan realiti hidupnya dengan mitos.

The Emperor Elagabalus: Fakta atau Fiksyen? oleh Leonardo de Arrizabalaga y Prado. Maharaja Rom abad ketiga yang salah menyebut Elagabalus Heliogabalus dijadikan mitos setelah kematiannya. Buku ini mengenal pasti fakta yang diketahui mengenai pemerintahannya.

Theodosius I

Theodosius and the Limits of Empire oleh Mark Hebblewhite. Biografi maharaja Rom Theodosius I (379-395 Masehi) mengesankan kebangkitannya dan pemerintahan yang penuh gejolak.

A.D. 381: Ahli bidaah, Pagans, dan Dawn of the Monotheistic State oleh Robert Easton. Pada tahun 381, Theodosius memutuskan bahawa semua subjek mesti mempercayai Triniti, mengakhiri kepelbagaian kepercayaan di empayar.

Galla Placidia

Galla Placidia: Permaisuri Rom Terakhir oleh Hagith Sivan. Biografi Galla Placidia (sekitar 390-450), seorang puteri yang dahagakan darah yang menjadi pengantin barbar dan, kemudian, bupati yang licik dari kerajaan Rom barat.

Permaisuri Kristian Rom: Galla Placidia Aturan di Twilight of the Empire oleh Joyce E. Salisbury. Anak perempuan maharaja Rom Theodosius I, Galla Placidia disandera setelah kejatuhan Rom ke Goth.

Maharaja Lain

Vespasian oleh Barbara Levick. Biografi maharaja Rom yang tidak karismatik ini mencabar kesahihan reputasinya yang baik dan pencapaian yang diakui secara universal.

The Emperor Commodus: God and Gladiator oleh John S. McHugh. Dikritik oleh sejarawan sejak zamannya sendiri, Commodus identik dengan pesta pora dan megalomania. Buku ini menetapkan pemerintahannya dalam konteks sejarah, menunjukkan bahawa ia mewarisi sebuah kerajaan yang dihancurkan oleh wabak dan perang.

Caracalla: Biografi Ketenteraan oleh Ilkka Syv & aumlnne. Bersalah kerana banyak pembunuhan dan pembunuhan beramai-ramai (termasuk saudara sendiri, bekas isteri dan anak perempuannya), Caracalla tetap popular di kalangan tentera.

Maharaja Alexander Severus: Zaman Pemberontakan Rom, 222-235 Masihi oleh John S. McHugh. Alexander Severus naik takhta melalui pembunuhan kejam terhadap sepupunya Elagabalus, dan dibunuh sendiri. Tahun-tahun di antara dipenuhi dengan pemberontakan dan intrik pengadilan. Namun sumber kuno memperlihatkan pemerintahannya sebagai zaman keadilan dan toleransi.

Maximinus Thrax: Dari Askar Biasa hingga Maharaja Rom oleh Paul N. Pearson. Lebih dari tujuh kaki, Maximinus menjadi maharaja dalam rampasan kuasa tentera.

Theodosius II: Memikirkan semula Empayar Rom pada Zaman Akhir yang disunting oleh Christopher Kelly. Sepuluh esei mengenai Theodosius II (408-450 M), maharaja Rom yang paling lama memerintah. Walaupun dia telah diberhentikan sebagai biasa-biasa saja dan tidak efektif, kerajaan timurnya tetap mempertahankan integritasnya sementara Barat dipecah oleh pencerobohan barbar.

Galerius dan Kehendak Diocletian oleh Bill Leadbetter. Mengkaji strategi, perang, pandangan keagamaan dan peninggalan maharaja Diocletian, maharaja Rom, serta kegagalan dan kejayaan Galerius penggantinya dengan latar belakang usaha Constantine untuk berkuasa.

Trajan: Optimus Princeps oleh Julian Bennett. Biografi maharaja Rom.

Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, edited by Anthony Birley, is a biography of the emperor who ruled from 193 to 211. He was succeeded by his son Caracalla.

Philip the Arab: A Study in Prejudice by Yasmine Zahran. Originally from Syria, Roman emperor Philip I ruled from AD 244 to 249. He is remembered for being sympathetic to the Christian faith and bringing peace with the Sassanid Empire.

Empresses

Representing Agrippina: Constructions of Female Power in the Early Roman Empire by Judith Ginsburg. Agrippina the Younger, mother of the notorious emperor Nero, was one of the most powerful women in the history of the Roman empire. This book takes a fresh look at literary and material representations of Agrippina.

Julia Domna, Syrian Empress by Dr B. Levick. Julia Domna, who died in 217, was the Syrian-born wife of Roman emperor Septimius Severus, and mother of Emperor Caracalla. This book examines key questions about the powerful empress.

Other Topics

Coining Images of Power by Erika Manders. Patterns in the representation of Roman emperors on imperial coinage, A.D 193-284.

Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD edited by Johannes Wienand. Reappraises the transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity, focusing on the century from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284-395).

Familia Caesaris: A Social Study of the Emperor's Freedmen and Slaves by P. R. C. Weaver. Shows how the emperor's slaves and freedman differed from others of their class.

Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of Client Kingship by David C. Braund. How a client king's power related to Roman authority and to his subjects.

Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire: Civil War, Panegyric, and the Construction of Legitimacy by Adrastos Omissi. How successive imperial dynasties attempted to legitimate themselves and communicate with their subjects.

Emperors and Bishops in Late Roman Invective by Richard Flower. A study of texts written by three bishops who attacked Roman emperor Constantius II (337-61) for his tyrannical behaviour and heretical religious beliefs.

Roman Buildings

Houses, Villas, and Palaces in the Roman World by Alexander Gordon MacKay. Roman domestic architecture from the time of the Etruscans to the late Roman Empire. Illustrated.

A Monument to Dynasty and Death by Nathan T. Elkins. The story of Rome's Colosseum and the emperors who built it.

The Emperor and Rome: Space, Representation, and Ritual edited by Björn C. Ewald and Carlos F. Noreña. The impact of imperial building programs, representations of the emperor in the city, and rituals linking emperor and people.

Military & Law

The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication by Kaius Tuori. How the emperor of Rome came to assume the mantle of a judge, from Augustus to the days leading up to the Severan dynasty.

The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235-395 by Mark Hebblewhite. Each emperor employed a range of strategies to convince the army that the empire could only prosper under his rule.

Fiction

Colleen McCullough's "Masters of Rome" series of novels: Entertaining novels emphasizing personal lives and politics of real historical figures. The books in the series are The First Man in Rome (about Caesar's uncle by marriage, Gaius Marius) The Grass Crown (about Sulla) Fortune's Favorites (about Pompey, Sulla, and Caesar) Caesar's Women (about Aurelia, Servilia, and Julia) Caesar: A Novel (about Julius Caesar) The October Horse (about Caesar, Cleopatra and the fall of the Roman republic) and Antony and Cleopatra: A Novel. McCullough is also the author of The Thorn Birds and other bestsellers.

Caligula by Simon Turney. Was Caligula really a monster? Let his sister Livilla tell you how her quiet, caring brother became the most powerful man on earth and Rome was changed forever.

Commodus by Simon Turney. On the brink of disaster, Roman emperor Commodus tries to hold the empire together, but only one woman can hold him together.

The Course of Honour by Lindsey Davis. In ancient Rome, future emperor Vespasian falls in love with a slave in the household of the imperial family.

Master & God: A Novel of the Roman Empire by Lindsey Davis. Gaius Vinius is a reluctant member of Emperor Domitian's personal guard. Flavia Lucilla is a hairdresser in the imperial court. Together they watch Domitian unravel into madness.

The Emperors by Frank Manley. Poems about Roman emperors.

Children's Books

Movies and Documentaries

These DVDs are formatted for North American audiences.

Caligula: Reign of Madness. Documentary from A&E's "Biography" series. A compelling look at one of the most notorious rulers in history, whose name is synonymous with depravity and madness.

I, Claudius. Excellent, racy miniseries from BBC's "Masterpiece Theater" series.

Modern Marvels: Hadrian's Wall. Walk the 74-mile barrier that marked the edge of the Roman Empire with world-renowned scholars.

In Search of History: The Roman Emperors. Go deep into the private lives of the mighty emperors. Visit the remains of their opulent mansions and see stunning reconstructions of what these palaces looked like at their prime.

When Rome Ruled. Six-part National Geographic series. Episodes include The Real Caligula, Doomsday Pompeii, Killing Caesar, and Ancient Superpower.

Roman Vice. Luxury made the Roman world go round. This documentary uses recent archeological evidence to bring this tumultuous period to life. Explore Roman funeral practices, secret societies and mysterious cults, and the grand palaces of Nero and Tiberius.

Rome: The Complete Series. HBO television series starring Ciaran Hinds as Julius Caesar.


Historical and traditional accounts of the life of Pontius Pilate

According to the traditional account of his life, Pilate was a Roman equestrian (knight) of the Samnite clan of the Pontii (hence his name Pontius). He was appointed prefect of Judaea through the intervention of Sejanus, a favourite of the Roman emperor Tiberius. (That his title was prefect is confirmed by an inscription from Caesarea in ancient Palestine.)

Protected by Sejanus, Pilate incurred the enmity of Jews in Roman-occupied Palestine by insulting their religious sensibilities, as when he hung worship images of the emperor throughout Jerusalem and had coins bearing pagan religious symbols minted. After Sejanus’s fall (31 ce ), Pilate was exposed to sharper criticism from certain Jews, who may have capitalized on his vulnerability to obtain a legal death sentence on Jesus (John 19:12). The Samaritans reported Pilate to Vitellius, legate of Syria, after he attacked them on Mount Gerizim (36 ce ). He was then ordered back to Rome to stand trial for cruelty and oppression, particularly on the charge that he had executed men without proper trial. According to Eusebius of Caesarea’s Sejarah Ecclesiastical, Pilate killed himself on orders from the emperor Caligula.


Julius Caesar

Admittedly Julius Caesar is better known to history as the penetrated rather than the penetrator. Sexually speaking, however, he was both. Known as the &ldquobald adulterer&rdquo Julius Caesar fit the Roman political stereotype perfectly by sleeping his way to power. As a young man he spent a considerable amount of time at the court of King Nicomedes of Bithynia, fuelling a series of rumors about an affair in which Caesar was the submissive party. His return to Bithynia just a few days after leaving to &ldquocollect a debt&rdquo only fanned the flames.

The Roman biographer Suetonius tells us that this was the only stain on Caesar&rsquos masculinity. But it was a stain that proved difficult to wash out and he would be reminded of it throughout his prematurely ended life. One colleague, Bibulus, addressed Caesar as &ldquothe queen of Bithynia.&rdquo During an assembly, a man named Octavius hailed his co-consul Pompey as &ldquoking&rdquo and Caesar as &ldquoqueen&rdquo. Even the great Cicero couldn&rsquot resist a poke, writing that it was on a Bithynian couch that Caesar—the son of Venus—lost his virginity.

He was just as badly behaved in the provinces, his veni, vidi, vici mantra applying just as much to his sexual conquests as to his military. While in Egypt he had a fling with another historical A-lister, Cleopatra, who forced their introduction by having herself smuggled into his palace wrapped in a carpet. She clearly made an impression. Within nine months she gave birth to their son Caesarian an unfortunate child who wouldn&rsquot survive the purges of Caesar&rsquos successor Octavian. Caesar&rsquos behavior in Gaul didn&rsquot go unnoticed by his men either. During his military triumph celebrating his success there they chanted:

&ldquoMen of Rome, look out for your wives,

We&rsquore bringing the bald adulterer home.

In Gaul you fucked your way through a fortune

Which you borrowed here in Rome.&rdquo

With Caesar returning, there was good reason for men to lock up their wives (and, indeed, daughters). Caesar had slept his way through the rank and file of aristocratic Roman women, even seducing the wives of fellow consuls and political allies. But these weren&rsquot the only exploits his soldiers sang about on this triumphal occasion. They couldn&rsquot resist making reference to his submission to a certain Bithynian king (boys will be boys) and in the course of their banter also boomed out: &ldquoCaesar might have conquered the Gauls but Nicomedes conquered him!&rdquo

Homosexual tendencies weren&rsquot frowned upon in Roman culture per se. Granted, they might earn you the derision of your macho-militaristic cohort. But, as long as sexual favors were given for the purpose of advancing your own political career, they could be overlooked. At least it showed some degree of interest in the proper, political values an upper class Roman should have. This doesn&rsquot exonerate Caesar in his colleagues&rsquo eyes. But, when Gaius Scribonius Curio, an orator and outspoken opponent of Caesar, called him &ldquoa man to every woman and a woman to every man&rdquo, it at least took something of a sting out of the tail.


How Did Julius Caesar Change Rome?

Julius Caesar changed Rome in a number of significant ways, from conquering more lands and defeating invading armies in order to expand the Roman empire to quelling uprisings and relieving debt. He helped to turn Rome into a cultured and enlightened hub.

Julius Caesar is one of the most well-known and iconic rulers of ancient Rome. He was hugely influential in all aspects of the Roman Empire, including politics, the everyday life of citizens, war and economics. When Caesar first came to power, one of the biggest threats facing Rome was the huge mountain of debt. This caused poverty and civil war, with lenders clamouring for their money, and sent property and real estate value plummeting. There was also a distinct lack of coinage, as people hoarded currency. Caesar intervened, relieving the financial crisis and ending the civil unrest by providing free rent for a year, giving citizens the option of a new life and a fresh start in one of the foreign colonies, limiting how much currency could be kept per citizen and cancelling all interest payments due since the outbreak of the civil war. His creative and decisive action ended the civil war and relieved much of the debt and poverty at the heart of the Empire while managing to appease both lenders and borrowers.

He also sought to make Rome a cultural haven of enlightenment and beauty, attracting intellectuals, doctors and scientists from all over the Empire to the city of Rome. After his murder, his influence continued, as his will decreed that his property and estates were made public and that his amassed fortune was distributed to the citizens of Rome.


Where Roman Shadows End @ eng.expert.ru

Like its founder, the early Christian church prized spiritual purity over physical cleanliness, which facilitated sins of the flesh. Thus, a Christian ascetic who crawled with vermin and reeked of body odor was venerated as a paragon of virtue.

Medieval Christians proved their holiness by not washing. A monk came upon a hermit in the desert and rejoiced that he smelt the good odour of that brother from a mile away.

Cleanliness improved during the Middle Ages particularly after the Crusaders imported the Turkish bath. Islamic culture had preserved the Roman traditions of cleaning the body first, then soaking and socializing.

Deprived of sophisticated Roman plumbing, most medieval and renaissance people appear to have bathed less often, but with the same social enjoyment.

Public bath houses were popular and well run, and expectant mothers even used them for baby showers, or festive lying- in baths, with their female friends. Paris and London had many of these jolly communal stews a term later applied to houses of prostitution.

Because so much sex went on in the public baths of the middle ages, the term stew or stewhouse, which originally referred to the moist warmth of the bathhouse, gradually came to mean a house of prostitution.
The church chimed in that the baths encouraged concupiscence, and the stews were closed. From the mid-16th century well into the 19th century in much of Europe, a person could go from cradle to grave without a good wash.

In England, Elizabeth I declared that she bathed once a month whether I need it or not. In Spain during the Inquisition, Ashen burg says, Jew and Muslim alike could be condemned by the frightful words was known to bathe. Nor was sanitation prized in France, where feces left in the halls of Versailles were carted away once a week.

When John Wesley famously re marked, in 1791, that cleanliness is, indeed, next to godliness, he wasn t talking about the body, but about clothes.

In the long centuries of Christian Europe, when miserable conditions of life and religious repression conspired to minimize the expression of sexual longing, desire was driven underground to rise only momentarily during celebrations like Carnaval. Yet by the late nineteenth century, increasing privacy, prosperity, and good health again permitted the underlying biological urge for total body sex to express itself. Our section on the history of the bikini tells this story from a sixties and Brazilian perspective. The wise look to the past as a guide to the future which brings us to Pompeii.

Pompeii had public baths as early as the 4th Century BC, whereas Rome itself did not have them until the time of Augustus (late 1st Century BC). They assumed a character like the Greek gymnasium but incorporated advances which we can still appreciate today. The community of Pompeii was finishing one the grandest bathhouse ever built when Mount Vesuvius exploded in 79 AD, giving us a remarkable view of a different way of living life.

The resort city of Pompeii has yielded an amazingly large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes. Many were removed and kept until their 21st century unveiling at the Naples Archeological Museum. They had been previously opened to public viewing for a brief period during the 1960s. [lagi]

The city of Pompeii was the luxury destination for the Roman elite and many members of the upper classes lived almost full-time. Pompeii was a lively place, and evidence abounds of literally the smallest details of everyday life. In examining the street Latin graffiti at Pompeii, we can gather that well-known gladiators and actors frequented the city, and drinking and sex were commonplace and accepted as outlets of entertainment in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

While the Romans adopted the idealization of beauty like the Greeks, their genius was melding ideas, money, and slave labor into greater infrastructure than had ever been seen before. Their increasingly complex structures included the baths. The Romans built so many of them, the baths became an experimental laboratory to test out new concepts. The baths were available to all as community center and a daily ritual that defined what it meant to be Roman.

The locals and visitors frequented a magnificent 5,000-seat theatre and a 20,000-capacity amphitheatre while enjoying at least 81 takeaway food emporiums featuring hot food and fresh bread. The spiritual life of the elite was important too, as the surviving temples dedicated to Isis, Venus, Jupiter and Apollo show us.

Beneath the lava ruins rests a freeze-frame of high style Roman living. Twenty-five thousand people or more died, buried under what was a high tower of pumice pebbles that fell for twelve hours, and killed in an instant by a hundred-mile-an-hour surge of pyroplastic flow -- a superheated mixture of poisonous gas, lava foam, and rocks. When archaeologists began the large-scale uncovering of the city a century ago, they found that there were cavities in the rock, left over from the victims. The plaster casts of the victims that have made Pompeii Italy's #1 visitor attraction.

The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans are the three ancient cultures with the most important Carnaval lineage, and they all retain their glorious presence in the preserved record of Pompeii at the beginning of the last great age. Isis is the Egyptian deity most responsible for the truce between the Romans and Catholics at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD. O ne of the most important fine art cycles in the history of art is at the Villa of Mystery. Here it is likely that young women were initiated into the mysteries of life, death and rebirth under the watchful eyes of Dionysis and his consort Ariadne.

Pompeii was a rich and cosmopolitan Roman city of trade originally dominated by the Greek traders who also ruled Egypt under the Ptolemys. There are depictions of women as goddesses, seductresses, saints, sinners, and muses, which often have the female appearing nude.

Inside their villas, Pompeians chose many different ways to express themselves. The interior walls of Pompeii homes were enriched by warm and brilliantly colored decorations often with mythological, heroic and fantastic subjects. Some Pompeians had a great love for depicting the mythological stories of the Greeks in these paintings. The rich colors and great skills of all the work show that a support of the arts was a revered aesthetic among the citizens.

The large number of well-preserved frescoes throw a great light on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second /Third Style).

In general, a Roman public bath was like a country club. For a small sum, it was a place to meet friends, go to the gym, play a few games, have a good meal, and spend a bit of time in a succession of cold, tepid, warm or hot baths. Lines on the road from the city s port led not only to brothels, but directed visitors to the heavily used bathhouses. Their great popularity in Pompeii likely contributed to making them an everyday life in the City of Rome and wherever Romans built their network of far-flung cities over the great empire.

Roman history bears witness to the fact that women's bodies were not their own, but lying at the intersection of public interest as they did, were constitutionally entrusted to males to regulate and administer for the good of the state. Women had no political rights. They were not allowed to vote, directly address the Senate, nor mill about in the forum.

In the earlier times of the republic there was a difference of hours for the two sexes. The therm were monopolized alternately by the women in the morning and then the men after they finished their workday in the early afternoon till dinner. Mixed bathing was generally frowned upon, although the fact that various emperors repeatedly forbade it seems to indicate that the prohibitions did not always work. Women who were concerned about their respectability would not frequent the baths when the men were there after 2 in the afternoon, but then the baths with its many small rooms and visitors on holiday would be an excellent place for prostitutes to ply their trade.

Of particular note for the ancient seaside trading community dominated by the Greeks for many centuries was the water system with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses.

Water was heated by furnaces in cavities beneath the marble floor. This rose through terracotta layering in the walls. The actual water would be supplied from the aqueduct constructed in the time of Augustus found in the city. The water-wheel in the Strabian Baths indicates that before this, water channeled through a well or a cistern.

Thanks to under-floor heating, and air ducts built into the walls, the whole room would have been full of steam when in use. Grooves in the ceiling allowed condensation to be channelled to the walls, rather than drip onto bathers. Cold water was piped into designated basins enabling bathers to cool off when they wanted.

The oldest bathhouse in Pompeii was the Strabian Baths, but there were several others - the Central, Suburban, Sarno, Amphitheatre dan Forum Baths. This was in a resort city of 15,000-20,000 people. The smaller nearby town of Herculaneum also had two large bathing places. Baths were for people of every social class, but not too egalatarian. The inscription in the huge Villa of Julia Felix which made her baths public following the rebuilding from the quake in 62 AD reads ‘elegant baths for respectable people.’

It was very spacious, and contained all sorts of apartments, side rooms, round and square basins, small ovens, galleries, porticoes, etc., without counting a space for bodily exercises ( pal stra) where the young Pompeians went through their gymnastics. It houses a gymnasium, has walls painted of garden imagery, has several changing rooms and latrines for guests. This was a complete water-cure establishment.

Body care was continued in the "Grande Palestra" a huge rectangular area designed for gymnastic exercises. It measured over 100 metres along each side. A large pool was situated at its centre.
"How have you managed to preserve yourself so long and so well?"
asked Augustus of Pollio.
"With wine inside, and oil outside,"
responded the old man.
Woman with Flask: marble statue of a woman wearing a peplos and holding a glass perfume flask. Ostia, c. 30 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum.

Slave attendants addressed all your needs one of them cuts your nails, another plucks out your stray hair, and a third still seeks to press your body and rasp the skin with his brush, a fourth prepares the most fearful frictions yet to ensue, while others deluge you with oils and essences, and grease you with perfumed unguents. They were perfumed with myrrh, spikenard, and cinnamon there was the Egyptian unguent for the feet and legs, the Ph nician for the cheeks and the breast, and the Sisymbrian for the two arms the essence of marjoram for the eyebrows and the hair, and that of wild thyme for the nape of the neck and the knees.

These unguents were very dear, but they kept up youth and health.

The square basin (alveus or baptisterium) which served for the warm baths was of marble. It was ascended by three steps and descended on the inside by an interior bench upon which ten bathers could sit together.

This frigidarium or natatio is a circular room, which strikes you at the outset by its excellent state of preservation. In the middle of it is hollowed out a spacious round basin of white marble, four yards and a half in diameter by about four feet in depth an circular series of steps on the interior enabled the Pompeians to bathe in a sitting posture. Four niches, prepared at the places where the angles would be if the apartment were square, contained benches where the bathers rested. The walls were painted yellow and adorned with green branches. The frieze and pediment were red and decorated with white bas-reliefs. The vault, which was blue and open overhead, was in the shape of a truncated cone. It was clear, brilliant, and gay, like the antique life itself.

Do you prefer a warm bath? Retrace your steps and, from the apodyteros, where you left your clothing, pass into the tepidarium.

On quitting the stove, or warm bath, the Pompeians wet their heads in that large wash-basin, where tepid water which must, at that moment, have seemed cold, leaped from a bronze pipe still visible. Others still more courageous plunged into the icy water of the frigidarium, and came out of it, they said, stronger and more supple in their limbs.

The Forum baths held open-air sports area (palaestra) for exercise, and the game called harpastum which was popular throughout Rome may have been played at rectangular courts found at the Central and Strabian Baths.

Augustus lived a modest life, with few of the luxuries that his rank would have allowed him to have . Augustus also introduced laws to improve morality to regulate marriage and family life and to control promiscuity.

Livia, was the third wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Together they promoted the feminine ideal of the earliest years of Rome, although this was apparently more honored in the breach than observance even by her husband, despite his success in being the patriarch of domestic virtue.

The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus' conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. As it was effectively considered Augustus' private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions, as well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome.

In AD 9, Augustus made adultery a criminal offence, although it is said this was more to intimidate wives than husbands. He first instituted the still encouraged practice of the Catholic church of many offspring by granting privileges to couples with three or more children. The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice. Virgil's The Aeneid is considered a great epic classic in many ways, not only beating the drum for Roman virtue, but thoughtfully and artfully blending the complex relations at the heart of the Roman Empire into a belief system which served the stability of the realm immeasurably.

Emperor Augustus is also known for his famous last words: "Did you like the performance?", referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor.

When Christianity banished the pagan gods over 1500 years ago, ending forever their lust-filled adventures, a sexual chill gripped Western Europe.

Even today, the current Pope tells all who will listen that having sex only for procreation and without protection is necessary to avoid the damnation of hell. The record shows that church leaders have few nice things to say about sex, declaring most manifestations of it sinful despite the fact that sexual desire is hard-wired into the brain.

In the late 13th century, the French bathhouses in Paris employed criers to announce when the water was hot.

"A crier patrolled the streets of thirteenth-century Paris to summon people to the heated steam-baths and bath-houses. These establishments, already numbering twenty-six in 1292 [Riolan, Curieuses Recherches, hlm. 219],

Napoleon and Josephine were fastidious for their time in that they both took a long, hot, daily bath. But Napoleon wrote Josephine from a campaign, I will return to Paris tomorrow evening. Don t wash. Bathing had become rarer with time as 17th-century aristocratic Frenchman, thought cleanliness meant changing his shirt once a day, using perfume to obliterate both his own aroma and everyone else s.

Traditionally a predominantly Roman Catholic country, with anticlerical leanings, France has been a very secular country since the 1970s. However, public holidays are still largely traditional Catholic holidays and knowledge of facts about the history of Catholicism (for instance, the attribute of saints) is considered normal for an educated person. The French generally consider that since the 1905 law of separation of Church and State, they have struck an excellent balance between the rights of religious people and the neutrality of public institutions with respect to religious matters.

Much has been said about the sex lives of the French. The fact the late president, Fran ois Mitterrand, had a love child was an open secret. And the extramarital affairs of his successor, Jacques Chirac, were so well known that even his wife joked about them publicly.

Current French President, 53 year old Nicolas Sarkozy, has raised a few eyebrows since his 2007 election, managing to go through a divorce, courtship and marriage to a model/ pop singer 41 year-old Carla Bruni - all within the first 100 days of his presidency. Carla Bruni is a fascinating beauty who knows her way around a media frenzy. In April 2008 a nude photo of Ms. Bruni, was sold at auction for 91,000 euros. The photographer had persuaded the seller to donate the money from the sale to charity. The charity, a Children s Hospital Association in Cambodia headed by Swiss pediatrician and musician Beat Richner, refused the money.

Accepting money obtained from exploitation of the female body would be perceived as an insult. In Cambodia use of nudity is not understood in the way it is in the West . At the same time, for Cambodians and their government, Madame Bruni is now seen as the First Lady of France. Our reputation would be stained by what they would perceive as disrespect should we accept money of this nature.

Exploitation generally means to take unfair advantage, and perhaps nothing has created more controversy more regularly than exposing the female body, except perhaps exposing the sexual passions the feminine form stirs. However, the ideal of progress requires we deal with it. By celebrating beauty as a high artistic ideal the French and Brazilian cultures have become beacons for a new tomorrow where exploitation of superior power and the planetary suicide of war can be avoided.

Roman women obeyed these restriction with little fuss. Yet, at the end of the successful Second Punic War in 201 B.C., male Romans and women in towns beyond Rome again donned their rich clothing and rode about in carriages. Women in Rome, however, continued to be denied these luxuries because of the Oppian Law. With the end of the wars, upper class women chafted at these continuing restrictions and now wished to keep their inherited money for their own use.

In 195 B.C., some members of the Tribunal proposed eliminating the Oppian Law. Women throughout Rome kept an eye on these proceedings. When it seemed that the majority of Tribunal was about to veto the proposed repeal, they poured into the streets in protest. It was the first time anything by women on a scale such as this was seen in Rome. As a result of the women's protest, the tribunes withdrew their veto and approved the repeal.

For the entire duration of the Roman Empire, Naples and Pompeii was celebrated as a rich and elegant cultural centre, where the Roman emperors and aristocracy came to spend the summer months in their sumptuous villas along the Bay of Naples coast and as far as Sorrento on one side of the bay.

The Sybarites were a luxury-loving people who are credited with inventing the steam bath.in the 8th century B.C.,

The city of Naples was founded by Greek immigrants, who ruled over the Gulf of Naples. Then the area was dominated by the Etruscans (525-474). After their defeat, the city again was subjected to the rule of the Greeks (474-425). The cultural mixing began early as the Greeks would send only men out as colonizers.

The struggle for supremacy in the territory of Campania was resolved by another civilization, that of Samnites who came down from the mountains of the Sannio regions. The archaeological excavations have revealed a number of buildings, of Sannitic type, as well as various sculptural and pictorial works referable to the same period.

For more than 3 centuries Pompei remained under their influence, until the end of the III century when the Roman conquered Campania region. Pompei at first was declared "socia" of Rome and it maintained its own institutions and language, then in the year 80 BC. became a Roman colony with the name of "Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeii". From then Pompeii was a city with Roman language, customs, architecture, political and administrative life.

In 2002 another important discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes, within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice to some scientists. These studies are just beginning to produce results.

Luciana Iacobelli, a lecturer in Pompeian antiquities at Bicocca University in Milan, said the graffiti also surprisingly reveals names of Roman women of various social classes. This suggests it wasn't only women doing the servicing.
"A recent study suggests that also men worked as prostitutes in the Lupanare. Their clients were both women and men," Iacobelli told Naples daily newspaper, "Il Mattino."
Unearthed in 1862, the Lupanare underwent several restorations. In 2006 the restoration lasted one year, mainly focused on the frescoes, which had begun to fade.

  • Caldarium - closest to the furnace. This room had a large tub or small pool with very hot water and a waist-high fountain (labrum) with cool water to splash on the face and neck.Hot air came through air ducts behind he walls and onto a marble floor held up by brick pillars.
  • Frigidarium -Cold bath, rather like a smaller version of a swimming pool.
  • Tepidarium - Warm bathing room, occasionally linked to a sweating room.
  • laconicum -dry heat like a sauna
  • apodyterium dressing room
  • palaestra - The large central courtyard was the exercise ground it was surrounded by a shady portico which led into the bathing rooms.
  • Vestibule - Entrance Hall to the bathhouses.

The Mount Vesuvius has been sleeping since 1944 under the watchful eyes of volcanologists, who regularly measure its temperature. Their observatory lies 608m high.

The region's volcanic band includes Stromboli, a remote island to the south, and Sicily's Mt. Etna, which demonstrated a significant period of activity in 2007.

Between 1933 and 1944 Mount Vesuvius buried several towns underneath more than 250 million cubic metres of lava. Even the cable car, well known through the folk song Funicul , funicul , fell victim to the lava .

The Finnish use of sauna is well documented back to the beginning of their history.

"The first examples of saunas were simple pits dug in the earth, with heated stones to generate the dry, hot atmosphere. Hot stones remain the hallmark of the sauna, radiating warmth into a small surrounding room, which today is typically built of wood. Dousing the stones with water creates a vapor called loyly by the Finns. Body brushes, called vihta atau vahta, and birch branches, are used to stimulate the skin and a healthy sweat." (von Furstenberg, p. 93)


List of Roman Emperors

  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Servius Sulpicius Galba
  • Marcus Salvius Otho
  • Aulus Vitellius Germanicus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Domitianus
  • Marcus Cocceius Nerva
  • Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
  • Publius Aelius Hadrianus
  • Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (Antoninus Pius)
  • Lucius Aurelius Verus
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
  • Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax
  • Marcus Didius Severus Julianus
  • Lucius Septimius Severus
  • Caracalla
  • Publius Septimius Geta
  • Marcus Opellius Macrinus
  • Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus
  • Elagabalus
  • Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
  • Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (Maximinus I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian II)
  • Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
  • Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (Gordian III)
  • Marcus Julius Philippus (Philip the Arab)
  • Gaius Messius Quintus Decius
  • Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
  • Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
  • Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus
  • Publius Licinius Valerianus
  • Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
  • Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
  • Marcus Claudius Tacitus
  • Marcus Annius Florianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Probus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carus
  • Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carinus
  • Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius
  • Flavius Valerius Constantius (Constantius Chlorus)
  • Galerius Maximianus
  • Flavius Valerius Severus
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (Constantine I or Emperor Constantine)
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
  • Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (Maximinus II)
  • Valerius Licinianus Licinius
  • Flavius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine II)
  • Flavius Iulius Constantius (Constantius II)
  • Flavius Julius Constans
  • Flavius Claudius Iulianus (Julian the Apostate)
  • Flavius Iovianus (Jovian)
  • Flavius Valentinianus
  • Flavius Julius Valens
  • Flavius Gratianus
  • Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian II)
  • Theodosius I
  • Flavius Arcadius
  • Flavius Honorius
  • Flavius Theodosius (Theodosius II)
  • Flavius Constantius (Constantius III)
  • Joannes
  • Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (Valentinian III)
  • Flavius Marcianus
  • Flavius Petronius Maximus
  • Eparchius Avitus
  • Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus
  • Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius
  • Procopius Anthemius
  • Anicius Olybrius
  • Glycerius
  • Julius Nepos
  • Romulus Augustus
  • Flavius Valerius Leo (Leo I the Thracian)
  • Flavius Leo Junior (Leo II)
  • Flavius Zeno
  • Flavius Basiliscus
  • Flavius Anastasius
  • Flavius Iustinus (Justin I)
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Justinian I)
  • Flavius Iustinus (Junior) Augustus (Justin II)

Even though Romulus Augustus is considered to have been the last Roman emperor, he was actually an usurper, and is not included in the list. The decline of the Roman empire occurred due to increasingly strong enemies and treachery within the empire. However, no one can deny them the various achievements that marked the era, like their art, literature and architecture.


14 Century CE

1303 CE – Andronicus II takes into his service Grand Company of Catalans

1328 CE – Death of Andronicus II. Accession of Andronicus III

1341 CE – Andronicus II dies, succeeded by John V

1347 CE – John Cantacuzenus joint emperor

1354 CE – Cantacuzenus abdicates. John V sole emperor. Turks occupy Gallipoli

1361 CE – Turks capture Adrianople

1391 CE – Accession of Manuel II

1425 CE – Manuel II dies. Accession of John VI

1148 CE – John VI dies. Accession of Constantine XI

1451 CE – Accession of Mohammed the Conqueror in the east

1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople to Mohammed the Conqueror. Death of Constantine XI.


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