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Kawah Mithridates Eupator

Kawah Mithridates Eupator


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Mithridate, Penawar Sejagat atau Ultimate Hoax?

Mithridate adalah salah satu persiapan yang paling kompleks dan sangat dicari semasa Zaman Pertengahan dan Zaman Renaissance. Tonik kuno yang agak mitos ini mengandungi lebih dari 60 bahan, digunakan selama berabad-abad, terutama di Itali dan Perancis sebagai penawar. Petrus Andreas Matthiolus, naturalis dan doktor peribadi kepada pelbagai bangsawan Eropah, menganggapnya lebih berkesan terhadap racun daripada khianat Venice - dan lebih mudah dibuat! Istilah sekarang merujuk kepada penawar racun serba guna.

Penyembuhan yang menakjubkan ini tidak diciptakan oleh doktor tetapi oleh Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysus, juga dikenal sebagai Mithridates the Great, yang dilahirkan pada tahun 135 SM dan raja Pontus hingga 63 SM.

Mithridates adalah putera keturunan Parsi dan Yunani. Dia menuntut keturunan dari banyak pahlawan terhormat - Cyrus the Great, keluarga Darius the Great, dan juga Alexander the Great. Dia telah disebut sebagai penguasa terbesar Kerajaan Pontus. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, Pontus berkembang untuk menyerap beberapa jiran kecilnya dan dia secara ringkas mempertikaikan penguasaan Rom di Asia Kecil.


Perang Mithridatik Pertama dan peranan Lucius Cornelius Sulla di Rom (89-87 SM)

Mithridates VI Eupator & # 8211 Raja Pontus (120 -63BC).

Ayahnya adalah Mithridates V yang memimpin berasal dari Achaemenids, dan asal ibunya adalah seorang Seleucid. Mithridates VI sangat bertenaga dan berkebolehan. Dia mempunyai kekuatan fizikal yang sangat besar tetapi dia tidak mempunyai pendidikan yang sistematik. Walaupun begitu, Mithridates tahu banyak bahasa yang berbeza, dan dia tahu wakil terbaik budaya Hellenistik. Dia menulis tentang sejarah alam, dan lain-lain, tetapi selain itu dia adalah satrap khas Asia, yang ciri khasnya adalah takhayul, khianat dan kekejaman. Mithridates VI dengan menakluki kawasan yang luas membuat Kerajaan Pontus yang hebat. Mithridates VI mewarisi dari bapanya sebuah kerajaan kecil. Dia menakluki Colchis di pantai timur Laut Hitam dan mengubah Colchis menjadi satrapie Pontus. Pada pertengahan abad kedua SM, di Crimea (Krim) Kerajaan Scythian yang kuat meningkat.

City Chersonesus dalam pertempuran melawan Kerajaan Scythian beralih ke pihak Mithridates VI dan juga Kerajaan Bosporan (wakil terakhir dinasti Spartocid). Raja Bosporan melepaskan kekuasaannya demi Mithridates VI. Mithridates VI mengejar bangsa Scythians of Chersonese dan dia mengalahkan pemberontakan hamba di bawah arahan Saumat. Selepas itu Mithridates VI mengadakan persekutuan dengan Scythians, Thracians dan Bastarnae. Kota-kota Yunani dan kerajaan Bosporus memberikan biji-bijian dan uang, dan juga orang-orang barbar memberi tentara. Mithridates VI mengadakan persekutuan dengan raja Armenia Harimau, yang membantunya untuk melawan Cappadocia dan Syria. Walau bagaimanapun, pengembangan Mithridates VI di kawasan Asia Tengah dan barat Asia mendapat tentangan daripada orang Rom. Lucius Cornelius Sulla pada tahun 92 SM, memerintah Cilicia, tetapi ia memperoleh kembali kemerdekaan Kerajaan Cappadocia. Setelah Sulla meninggalkan Kerajaan Cappadocia, Mithridates VI menamakan raja baru di Cappadocia dan Bithynia.

Pada waktu itu, Konsul Manius Aquilius (yang sebelumnya memberontak pemberontakan hamba di Sisilia) membangun situasi politik sebelumnya di kerajaan-kerajaan ini. Mithridates VI tidak menentangnya, kerana pada waktu itu dia tidak ingin berperang dengan Rom. Namun, Manius Aquilius membuat langkah pertama dan atas inisiatifnya Bithynian King memulakan perang melawan Mithridates VI.

Penentangan Mithridates VI adalah sebab campur tangan Rom. Perang Rom pertama menentang Mithridates VI bermula pada tahun 89 SM. Pasukan Bithynian dan Rom dikalahkan oleh Mithridates VI. Mithridates VI masuk ke wilayah Rom di Asia. Penduduk Lesbos menyerahkan Manius Aquilius kepada Mithridates VI, yang cuba melarikan diri.

Selama setengah abad pemerintahan di Kerajaan Pergamon, Orang Rom berjaya menimbulkan kebencian penduduk tempatan. Oleh itu, Mithridates VI diterima sebagai pembebas. Di Efesus datang delegasi yang menyambutnya sebagai Dionysus baru, ayah dan penyelamat Asia. Dari sana dia memerintahkan pembasmian semua orang Rom dan Itali yang tinggal di bandar-bandar Asia Kecil, tanpa mengira usia dan jantina. Akibatnya 80,000 mati pada satu hari. Mithridates VI membahagikan wilayah yang ditakluki menjadi satrapies. Bandar-bandar Yunani diiktiraf sebagai wilayah bebas dan selama 5 tahun bandar dikecualikan dari semua cukai.

Dari sini, Mithridates VI berpindah dengan tentera di Greece. Di Athena dengan sokongannya seorang ahli falsafah Epicurean Aristion menjadi penguasa Athens & # 8211 program demokratik radikal dibuat dan kebanyakan orang kaya meninggalkan kota. Pada tahun 88 SM, orang Rom pada masa yang sama dengan beberapa kejayaan dalam memerangi Itali kehilangan kuasa di kawasan timur yang penting.

Perjuangan sosial di Rom semasa Perang Mithridatik Pertama

Senat menganugerahkan Sulla untuk menjadi panglima tentera. Lapisan sosial demokratik menentang keputusan ini. Pada tahun 88 SM, orang-orang popular dan kesatria (yang mempunyai masalah dengan fakta bahawa wilayah yang kaya akan diperintah oleh orang-orang yang optimis) kembali bersatu. Dengan menggunakan suasana ini, Gaius Marius melantik dirinya sebagai komandan tentera Rom dan dia juga membuat perjanjian dengan tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus.

Dua mahkamah dihantar di Nola (di Campania) untuk memberitahu Lucius Cornelius Sulla mengenai keputusan Majlis Nasional. Majlis Nasional membuat keputusan bahawa Gaius Marius harus menjadi komandan namun Sulla tidak bersetuju dengan keputusan ini. Pegawai kanan berjaya menolak perang saudara, tetapi Sulla masih menuju ke Rom, yang dia, dengan kata-katanya sendiri, ingin menyelamatkan republik Rom dari kezaliman. Gaius Marius dan tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus pada saat-saat terakhir menuntut agar hamba pergi juga dalam pertempuran melawan Sulla, tetapi itu sia-sia. Sulla menjadi diktator Rom yang tidak terhad. Gaius Marius dikalahkan dan dia melarikan diri ke Afrika. Segera, setelah penubuhan pemerintahan, Lucius Cornelius Sulla menghapuskan Sulpicius yang diusulkan Undang-Undang dan dia juga mengembalikan Undang-Undang tersebut dari masa Servius Tullius. Centuriate Comitias diperkuat dengan mengorbankan tribune comitia, juga kekuatan Senat diperluas (jumlah anggota meningkat 300 orang), pemerintah tribun dikurangkan koloni baru ditubuhkan demi kepentingan tentera veteran.

Kembalinya Gaius Marius di Rom dan kemenangan penyokong Marius

Pada tahun 87 SM, Konsul Lucius Cornelius Cinna, penyokong Gaius Marius dan Gnaeus Octavius ​​(penyokong Sulla, seorang Optimates) mengangkat sumpah setia kepada Sulla, dan setelah itu Sulla memutuskan untuk pergi berkempen ke Timur.

Setelah Sulla meninggalkan Rom, para penyokong Marius menyerahkan Rom yang kelaparan dan kemudian menular. Budak-budak itu bebas dan mereka pergi ke sisi penyokong Marius, sama seperti tentera yang bertugas dalam tentera yang optimis. Senat juga menjadi sasaran penyokong Marius dan dengan ini Rom menyerah kepada mereka. Selama lima hari, pembunuhan saingan politik berlaku. Pada 13 Januari 86 SM, Marius meninggal. Selama itu Sulla dipecat dari jawatan panglima. Konsul Lucius Valerius Flaccus adalah komandan baru yang terpilih untuk pertempuran di Timur. Undang-undang Sulla dihapuskan dan warganegara baru dibahagikan kepada 35 suku, dan juga terdapat sebagian hutang. Jajahan baru ditubuhkan di Capua dan juga monetalis yang rosak digantikan dengan monetalis yang lebih mencukupi. Pegawai awam Knights mendapat yang paling banyak dengan perubahan ini. Kesatria ini adalah sokongan utama penyokong Marius. Di kalangan senator masih terdapat banyak penyokong Sulla sehingga sebab itulah rundingan dimulakan mengenai kepulangan Sulla.


Kawah Mithridates Eupator - Sejarah

Nota Penyelidikan:

Mithridates V Euergetes, anak lelaki Pharnaces I, adalah raja Pontus, di utara Turki, antara tahun 152/151 dan 120. Dia bersekutu dengan Rom, yang disokongnya semasa Perang Punic Ketiga (149-146). Dengan pakatan ini, Euergetes dapat memperluas kekuatan Pontus dari pesisir Laut Hitam ke pusat Anatolia, di mana dia berperang melawan raja Ariarathes VI Epiphanes dari Cappadocia dan memaksa penguasa Paphlagonian Pylaemenes mewariskan wilayahnya ke Pontus.

Dia membuat pengadilan Hellenistik, menghadirkan dirinya ke dunia Yunani sebagai juara peradaban Yunani di Anatolia. Pada tahun 120, dia dibunuh di Sinope, dan menyerahkan kerajaannya kepada isterinya, puteri Seleucid, Laodice, dan dua putra mereka, Mithridates VI Eupator dan Mithridates Chrestus. 1

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Dasar-dasar dari. Mithridates V Euergetes adalah. penting dalam membantu menilai pemerintahan anaknya dan penggantinya Mithridates VI Eupator. [Adalah] masuk akal untuk menganggap bahawa kesan yang ditinggalkan oleh Euergetes mungkin telah mempengaruhi persepsi umum tentang Eupator, paling tidak pada awal pemerintahan yang terakhir. Beberapa kawasan kelihatan cukup mudah. Euergetes melanjutkan, misalnya, kebijakan pendahulunya yang setia dan ramah terhadap Rom. Dia menghantar beberapa kapal dan pembantu untuk membantu pasukan Rom di Carthage dalam Perang Punic Ketiga (App. Mith. 10). Dia juga memberikan kekuatan dalam perang melawan Aristonicus, untuk layanan yang diberikannya hadiah Phrygia Maior (App. Mith. 57 Hanya. Epit. 37.1.2. 38.5.3).

. Phrygia agak jauh dari sempadan Pontus, dan penugasan Phrygia kepada Euergetes menyiratkan bahawa dia memegang semacam pengaruh di Galatia dan mungkin Paphlagonia. Tidak perlu diasumsikan bahawa pengaruh ini hilang semasa kematian Euergetes, hanya kerana Justin (Epit. 37.4.6.) Memberitahu bahawa Mithridates Eupator merampas Galatia. Eupator mungkin tidak berpuas hati dengan pengaruh yang ada, dan sebaliknya ingin menduduki negara ini secara langsung. Dia masih dapat memanggil orang Galatia sebagai sekutunya pada malam Perang Mithridatik Pertama (Hanya. Epit. 38.4.9).

Ada kemungkinan samar Euergetes mewarisi Paphlagonia dari rajanya Pylaemenes. Ketika Eupator dan Nicomedes III dari Bithynia menyerang di 108 dan membaginya di antara mereka. mereka diperintahkan oleh Rom untuk mengembalikannya dalam pristinum statum (Just. Epit. 37.4.4). Eupator, bagaimanapun, mendakwa bahawa ayahnya telah mewarisi negara itu, dan terkejut bahawa orang Rom sekarang membuat masalah Paphlagonia ketika mereka tidak melakukannya sebelumnya. Kecurigaan segera terkait dengan tuntutan ini kerana dibuat untuk membenarkan pencerobohan Pontic. Demikian pula, Cappadocia, salah seorang korban Eupator, selalu menjadi milik nenek moyangnya, sehingga dituntut: pada masa pemerintahan ayahnya Euergetes, itu hanya dipulihkan oleh Pontus (App. Mith. 12). Baik Cappadocia dan Paphlagonia pada kenyataannya tampaknya merupakan kerajaan yang cukup mandiri, dan ada sedikit alasan untuk mempercayai tuntutan Eupator yang membenarkan dirinya sendiri.

Minat Euergetes terhadap Cappadocia dinyatakan dengan lebih jelas: & quothe menyerangnya sebagai wilayah asing & quot (Aplikasi Mith. 10). Kami juga menjumpai Laodice, anak perempuan Euergetes, yang menikah dengan raja muda Cappadocia, Ariarathes VI (Hanya. Epit. 38.1.1 Memnon 22.1). Biasanya dianggap bahawa perkahwinan ini terjadi setelah pencerobohan, dan menandakan penghentian permusuhan antara Pontus dan Cappadocia. D. Glew baru-baru ini mencabar pandangan ini. Dia bertanya bagaimana Euergetes, jika dia menguasai Cappadocia. berharap dapat mengendalikannya hanya dengan menikahi putrinya dengan rajanya, dan mengapa Ariarathes, jika dia mengalahkan serangan Pontik, setuju untuk menikahi puteri lawannya yang kalah. Sarannya adalah bahawa hubungan Euergetes dengan Cappadocia sebenarnya ramah, dan bahawa pencerobohan dilakukan atas nama Ariarathes VI untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan dalaman di Cappadocia. Ini, menurutnya, lebih masuk akal dalam pernikahan: setelah menolong Ariarathes membangun dirinya, Euergetes mempererat hubungan dengan menikahi anak perempuannya dengannya. Ini mungkin berlaku, tetapi pendapat yang diterima itu masuk akal: Euergetes menguasai Cappadocia, tetapi kemudian, setelah mengetahui apa yang telah terjadi pada Pharnaces yang sama agresif, dia memutuskan untuk tidak mendudukinya, dan sebaliknya meninggalkan Ariarathes di atas takhta, dengan harapan tetap pemeriksaan ketat terhadapnya melalui Laodice, dan dengan itu mengawal negara secara tidak langsung. Ketika Ariarathes V meninggal, mungkin pada tahun 130, anaknya Ariarathes VI masih terlalu muda untuk memerintah, dan ibunya Nysa bertindak sebagai bupati. Ariarathes VI hanya akan sedikit lebih tua pada saat dia menikah dengan Laodice, dan dengan demikian masih, Euergetes mungkin menganggap, cukup mudah, terutama ketika pasukannya baru saja dikalahkan oleh Euergetes. Memandangkan aktiviti awal Eupator di Cappadocia, ini lebih masuk akal daripada versi peristiwa Glew. Bagi polisi Cappadocian Eupator hampir sama: iaitu, dia tidak mahu menduduki daerah itu secara langsung tetapi terus berusaha mengawalnya secara tidak langsung melalui perantara. Eupator mungkin hanya mengambil alih dasar ayahnya.

Oleh itu, perkahwinan anak perempuannya merupakan bahagian penting dalam dasar luar Euergetes. Mengenai perkahwinannya sendiri, ada kemungkinan dia mengahwini seorang Seleucid. Ini tidak dinyatakan secara langsung dalam sumber apa pun, tetapi ini adalah kesimpulan dari Justin (Epit. 38.8.1), yang melaporkan tuntutan leluhur Mithridates Eupator: paternos maiores menuntut Cyro Darioque, conditoribus Persici regni, maternos a magno Alexandro ac Nicatore Seleuco conditoribus imperii Macedonici referat.

Secara dalaman. kerajaan, atau paling tidak pengadilan, menjadi lebih Yunani, dan dalam kebijakan luar negeri juga Euergetes berusaha untuk menghadirkan wajah filhelenik sepenuhnya kepada dunia luar. Raja sendiri, dan juga dewan Dionysius, dihormati di Delos: Aeschylus anak Zopyrus, dan ahli sukan gim Seleucus mendedikasikan patung untuk menghormatinya. Itu Aeschylus tidak bertarikh, tetapi Seleucus adalah ahli gim pada tahun 129/8. Kami mengetahui lebih banyak hubungan Euergetes dengan Delos dari tetradrachm kerajaan yang baru-baru ini dibincangkan oleh L. Robert, isu kerajaan Euergetes pertama yang ditemui. Sebaliknya beruang, seperti biasa, adalah potret raja, tetapi untuk pertama kalinya ia agak kurang realistik dengan rambut yang lebih cantik dan romantis daripada potret koin diraja pendahulunya. Jenis serong adalah sosok lelaki berdiri, menghadap ke kiri dan memegang busur di lengan kirinya. Di lengan kanannya yang terentang berdiri sosok wanita dengan & quotforme sch & eacutematique & quot di kedua-dua sisi, dan tulisan di tiga garis menegak berbunyi & quot; raja Mithridates Euergetes & quot. Robert telah mengenal pasti sosok itu sebagai patung Apollo Delios. Angka-angka di lengan kanan adalah tiga Rahmat. Di sini. adalah pengisytiharan Hellenisme. dengan merujuk khas untuk faedah yang diberikan oleh Euergetes di pulau suci Apollo. Pilihan jenis itu diilhamkan oleh sumbangannya kepada Apollo, dan patung-patung yang didirikan oleh Seleucus pada tahun 129/8, dan oleh Aeschylus, adalah pengakuan atas sumbangan ini.

Dalam pemerintahan Mithridates Euergetes kita mungkin mengenal pasti tiga helai dasar luar. Pertama, helai pro-Rom yang jelas diwarisi dari pendahulunya. Euergetes adalah setia & berharga "kekasih" Roma, dan dia memperoleh banyak pahala dalam pemerolehan Phrygia. Adakah penghapusan Phrygia dari kawalan Pontic pada awal pemerintahan Eupator dari Rom mencerminkan kecurigaan Senator terhadap kekuatan dan aktiviti Euergetes, adalah masalah spekulasi. Meski demikian, walaupun memungkinkan, untuk tingkat kegelisahan Romawi, tidak ada bukti apa pun yang mendukung teori bahawa Rom berada di belakang pembunuhan Euergetes, dan Senat mengharapkan Euergetes mewariskan kerajaannya kepada Roma. Kedua, terdapat helai filhelenik yang sama jelas. Ini bukan perkara baru, tetapi penekanan pada Apollo dan Delos sepertinya. Jalur ketiga adalah kebijakannya terhadap jirannya di Anatolia, dan kurang jelas. Bukti keterlibatannya dalam Paphlagonia dan Cappadocia disamarkan oleh percubaan Mithridates Eupator untuk membenarkan pendudukannya sendiri di negara-negara ini, tetapi nampaknya Euergetes adalah ekspansionis. Dia mungkin berharap dapat memperluas kerajaannya di bawah perlindungan kebijakan pro-Rom, mungkin mendapatkan posisi yang sama seperti yang dipegang oleh Pergamum dan Rhodes pada paruh pertama abad kedua, tetapi kaedahnya jauh lebih halus daripada Pharnaces: dia berusaha untuk memperluas pengaruh Pontik dan bukannya sempadan wilayah. 2

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Tempoh terakhir hubungan Seleucid-Pontic dihubungkan dengan pemerintahan Mithridates V Euergetes dan anaknya Mithridates VI Eupator. Menurut tradisi Pontic, Mithridates V mengambil seorang isteri dari keluarga dinasti Seleucid - Laodice, anak perempuan raja Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Tarikh tepat perkahwinan ini tidak diketahui. T. Reinach berpendapat bahawa ia boleh berlaku pada pertengahan tahun 140-an SM. Pembaharuan bekas amalan menikahi puteri Seleucid terbukti disebabkan oleh kepatuhan aktif terhadap dasar luar Rom, yang juga dilakukan oleh mendiang Seleucid. Mithridates V berhasrat untuk mendapatkan persetujuan Rom dan, jika mungkin, mendapat kebenaran haknya di Phrygia dan Mysia. [Dia] juga perlu meyakinkan orang Rom tentang haknya yang sah untuk menuntut ke wilayah-wilayah ini menurut kes yuridis yang sama. Untuk membuktikan tuntutannya, Euergetes perlu mempunyai pasangan dari Seleucids sebagai bukti kesahihan dan kesinambungan keputusan Seleucus Callinicus. Raja Pontik akhirnya berjaya mencapai tujuan ini - pada tahun 129 SM, ketika Pergamum diisytiharkan sebagai wilayah Rom, Phrygia Besar diberikan kepada Pontus sebagai hadiah kerana menolong orang Rom dalam perang dengan Aristonicus (Justin XXXVII. 1. 2 XXXVIII. 5 3 Aplikasi. Mithr. 12, 13, 57 cp. Aplikasi. Bel. siv. I. 22 Liv. LXX Cic. Pro Flacco. 98 De oratore. II. 124, 188, 194-196). 3

Maklumat Perkahwinan:

Mithridates berkahwin dengan Laodike SELEUCID, Puteri Syria, anak perempuan Antiochos IV Epiphanes SELEUCID, Raja Syria, dan Laodike SELEUCID, Ratu Syria, antara tahun 152 dan 145 SM. (Laodike SELEUCID meninggal antara 115 dan 113 SM.)


Mithridate

Mithridates the Great adalah raja zalim Pontus (sebuah kerajaan kuno di Asia Timur Laut) dari tahun 120 hingga 63 SM. Dia dibunuh oleh tentera upahan Gallic yang layanannya dia sendiri setelah gagal meracuni dirinya setelah pemberontakan oleh pasukannya. Sepatutnya, bunuh diri tidak berhasil kerana dia membuat dirinya kebal terhadap racun dengan mengambil dosis kecil sejak kecil dalam usaha untuk menghindari nasib pembunuhan oleh racun. Kisah toleransi Mithridates berada di sebalik perkataan Inggeris mithridate, yang bermula pada awal abad ke-16, serta kata mithridatisme, ditakrifkan sebagai "toleransi terhadap racun yang diperoleh dengan mengambil dos yang meningkat secara beransur-ansur."


Meja bulat

Jar ubat untuk mithridate, dikaitkan dengan Annibale Fontana, c. 1580. Bantuan menunjukkan Mithridates VI diberikan penawar hariannya atau dos racun. Muzium J. Paul Getty. Imej digital berdasarkan Program Kandungan Terbuka Getty.

Sekitar 120 SM raja-raja Helenistik Pontos yang terakhir dan terhebat - wilayah yang meliputi sebagian besar pantai Laut Hitam - naik takhta. Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysos akan memerintah selama kira-kira lima puluh tujuh tahun, jauh lebih lama daripada tujuh pendahulunya, dan walaupun kerajaannya sebagian besar akan diasimilasi oleh orang Rom atau dipecah menjadi negara yang lebih rendah, keturunan langsungnya akan memerintah sebahagian dari wilayahnya - di bawah pengawasan Rom - hingga sekurang-kurangnya abad ketiga. Salah satu dinasti utama era akhir Hellenistik, Mithridates VI akan menimbulkan minat di kalangan orang Yunani dan Rom selama beratus-ratus tahun selepas kematiannya. Lebih-lebih lagi, dia akan memiliki kehidupan akhir yang kuat dalam seni dan muzik ke zaman moden. Pencapaiannya tidak terbatas pada dunia politik dan ketenteraan, dia akan mewujudkan kehadiran intelektual dan artistik di istananya, termasuk profil ilmiahnya sendiri. Seperti penentang hebat ekspansionisme Rom yang lain, pencapaiannya akan dipertahankan oleh mereka yang mengalahkannya.

Mithridates VI mendapat pendidikan dalam pembelajaran Yunani dan sangat meminati masalah budaya dan muzik. Dia menulis mengenai penafsiran mimpi, baik miliknya dan juga ahli keluarganya. Tetapi aktiviti keilmuan yang paling penting bagi raja dan anggota istananya adalah penyelidikan perubatan. Raja sendiri memimpin, bahkan menjadi doktor yang berlatih, walaupun ini mungkin merupakan aktiviti politik daripada aktiviti perubatan. Terkenal di pengadilan adalah Krateuas jamu, yang dikenal sebagai "pemotong akar," yang menulis ramuan abjad, terkenal dengan representasi tanaman berwarna. Dia juga menulis secara meluas mengenai botani. Doktor empirik Zopyros, yang kebanyakan kerjayanya berada di Iskandariah di istana Ptolemy XII (dia mungkin menjadi guru Cleopatra VII), bertukar maklumat dengan raja tentang penawar racun dan mungkin telah mengunjungi Pontos. Raja memiliki perpustakaan perubatan yang luas, dan dia mengumpulkan spesimen dan maklumat dari wilayahnya dan berhubungan dengan doktor di seluruh dunia Mediterania. Dia mendesak doktor Yunani Asclepiades dari Bithynia, yang tinggal di Roma, untuk datang ke pengadilan, tetapi hubungan mereka terbatas pada pertukaran risalah. Sejak Asclepiades mati pada tahun 91 SM, minat perubatan Mithridates semestinya bermula sejak awal.

Minat dalam farmakologi adalah perhatian khusus terhadap kerabat diraja Hellenistik: bahaya keracunan oleh orang intim selalu ada dan boleh berjaya. Attalus III dari Pergamon (memerintah 138–133 SM) adalah seorang petani yang terkenal — sehinggakan dikatakan mengabaikan tugas kerajaannya dan mempercepat akhir kerajaannya — yang menulis tentang perubatan dan farmakologi. Raja Seleucid Antiochus VIII (memerintah sekitar 125–96 SM) menciptakan sebatian yang berkesan melawan racun serta ubat-ubatan lain. Nicomedes IV dari Bithynia (memerintah sekitar 94–74 SM) juga merupakan seorang ahli farmakologi yang berlatih.

Mithridates mencipta sebilangan penawar, umumnya berdasarkan ramuan dan bahan botani lain. Kenari, buah ara, dan rue yang paling mudah digunakan mempunyai puluhan bahan. Dikatakan bahawa dia berjaya menguji penawar pada tahanan yang dihukum mati. Walaupun kisah serupa diceritakan mengenai Cleopatra VII (hanya melibatkan racun, bukan penawar), dalam kes Mithridates, kisah itu mungkin benar. Akhirnya nama mithridatios (atau mithridatum) dilampirkan pada satu atau lebih penawar kata ini mithridate masih digunakan hari ini sebagai ubat penawar racun dan penyakit. Penawar Mithridatik menjadi terkenal di Rom, terutama di kalangan elit Rom, walaupun pada waktunya mereka berkembang dari yang asal. Dalam Renaissance, penawar yang disebut mithridatum digunakan untuk melawan wabak itu, dan balang ubat terra-cotta yang disepuh halus, yang dibuat untuk menyimpan sebatian tersebut dan dengan perwakilan kematian raja, dikaitkan dengan Annibale Fontana dan dipamerkan di Muzium Getty.

Mithridates juga bereksperimen dengan berkebun saintifik, terutama semasa pengasingan terakhirnya di Bosporus, berusaha (tidak berjaya) membawa tanaman Mediterranean ke wilayah utara itu. Namanya terpasang pada sejumlah tanaman yang dikenalinya, termasuk yang bernama Krateuas bernama mithridatia, dengan bunga ros yang daunnya serupa dengan acanthus. Ada satu lagi yang disebut scordotis atau scordion, tingginya sekitar satu hasta dengan daun yang lebat seperti pohon oak, yang berasal dari Pontos. Kedua-duanya tidak dapat dikenal pasti dengan pasti hari ini. Terdapat eupatoria ketiga (mungkin Eufatoria Agrimonia) bijinya dapat melegakan disentri. Mithridates juga mengembangkan beberapa ubat untuk sakit tekak. Banyak tulisan raja ditemui oleh Pompey ketika runtuhnya kerajaan, termasuk buku nota dan bahan lain di tangannya sendiri. Dia menulis dalam bahasa Yunani, dan beberapa risalah dan catatannya diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Latin oleh Pompeius Lenaeus, salah seorang orang bebas Pompey dan pihak perubatan sendiri.

Ironinya, reputasi raja sebagai tukang kebun utama akan memberi kesan setelah kematiannya kepada dua penakluknya, Lucullus dan Pompey. Bahkan lebih dari satu abad kemudian, kebun Lucullus di Bukit Pincian di Rom dan berhampiran Naples terkenal dengan kemewahan dan kualiti Timur. Dia mengimport tanaman dari Pontos, terutama pokok ceri. Pompey mendedikasikan teater dan portico di Kampus Martius di Rom beberapa tahun selepas kejayaannya, salah satu kompleks seni bina yang paling inovatif pada zaman itu. Ini termasuk taman yang rumit dengan pokok-pokok dari Asia, yang tersisa dari karier Pompey di luar negeri. Kompleks ini mungkin juga mempunyai patung Mithridates yang dibawa dari Pontos. Lukisan taman yang terkenal dari ruang makan vila Livia di Prima Porta, di utara Rom, sekarang di Museo Nazionale Romano, mungkin merupakan contoh terbaik dari jenis taman yang ditanam oleh orang-orang Rom bangsawan, dan mungkin juga yang ada Mithridates dirinya. Semangat raja kelihatan di Rom lama setelah kematiannya.

Pmungkin tidak menghairankan, kajian racun Mithridates seumur hidup sepertinya telah memainkan peranan besar dalam kematiannya.

Suatu hari pada awal tahun 63 SM Mithridates melihat ke luar dari istana dan melihat anaknya Pharnaces II diisytiharkan sebagai raja di halaman bawah. Mithridates takut bahawa dia akan diserahkan kepada orang Rom dan muncul dalam kemenangan. Dia mempunyai racun, dan pertama kali memberikannya kepada dua anak perempuannya, Mithridatis dan Nyssa, yang pernah bertunangan, masing-masing, kepada Ptolemy XII Mesir dan saudaranya Ptolemy dari Cyprus. Kedua-duanya mati serta-merta. Tetapi racun itu dikatakan tidak berpengaruh pada raja, yang selama bertahun-tahun selalu menguji penawar untuk melindungi dirinya. Dengan demikian dia meminta seorang petugas Celtic di rombongannya, Bituitus tertentu, untuk membunuhnya, yang mematuhinya. Tradisi yang kurang dramatik, dan mungkin kurang dipercayai, adalah dia menjadi mangsa pemberontakan di tenteranya, reaksi terhadap ekspedisi Eropah yang dirancang.

Kisah racun itu mencurigakan, walaupun sering dilaporkan, dengan catatan yang paling lengkap oleh Galen. Laporan Galen, yang ditulis sekurang-kurangnya dua abad kemudian, diperkenalkan oleh "mereka mengatakan," cara dalam bahasa Yunani untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang ditanyakan oleh pengarang. Keprihatinan yang paling jelas adalah bahawa raja, yang merupakan ahli penangkal penawar, tidak mungkin mengambil racun yang dia mempunyai setiap alasan untuk percaya tidak akan berjaya. Lebih besar kemungkinan bahawa kisah itu adalah versi romantis yang dibuat dari kematian raja, mirip dengan Cleopatra VII dan asp, yang mengungkapkan fakta bahawa pada saat terakhir, secara fizikal lemah dan musnah secara politik, dia tidak dapat menyingkirkan dengan dirinya sendiri dan, seperti Marcus Antonius tiga puluh tahun kemudian, harus memanggil seorang budak.

Dua dekad setelah kematiannya, Cicero memanggil Mithridates VI "raja terhebat sejak Alexander." Walaupun Cleopatra VII sering dilihat sebagai lawan terakhir dari Republik Rom, penentangannya hanya menempati tempoh terakhir dalam hidupnya, namun Mithridates bertengkar dengannya selama hampir tiga puluh tahun. Ketika Republik berkembang menjadi sebuah kerajaan, para raja dan ratu di sekitar pinggirannya, seperti Herodes the Great of Judaea, Archelaus of Cappadocia, Dynamis of Bosporos, dan Juba II dan Cleopatra Selene dari Mauretania, mencari tempat tinggal dengan Rom sebagai raja bersekutu dan bukannya konfrontasi.

Dari Empayar Laut Hitam: Kebangkitan dan Kejatuhan Dunia Mithridatik oleh Duane W. Roller. Hak cipta © 2020 oleh Duane W. Roller dan diterbitkan oleh Oxford University Press. Hak cipta terpelihara.


Aniña wafat bulğannan soñ Mitridat Watanın taşlap kitärgä mäcbür bulğan, çönki änise ulınıñ yaña xakim bulaçağın telämägän.

Öygä qaytqaç, Midridat başlanğıç bilämälären kiñäytä, Kolxida, Bospor, Paflagoniä, Kappadokiä, Galatiä ala ala ala.

Soñraq Vifiniä patlalığın basıp alırğa tırışqan, läkin Vifiniä - Rim Respublikası mänfäğätlären yaqlağan. Näticädä Rim Respublikasına qarşı suğışı başlana.

Pont patşalarınıñ Rim İmperiäsenä qarata küptän däğwaları bulğan häm Mitridat Eupator böyek Rim ğäskär başlıqlarına qarşı - Sulla, Lukull, Gney Pompey - suğışqan.

Pont häm Rim Respublikası arasında öç "Mitridat suğışı" bulğan.

64 b.q. Midridatnıñ ulı Farnak häm Rim yaqlı xiänätçelär citäkçelegendä Mitridatqa qarşı tüntäreleş oyıştırılğan.

Xiänätçelär oyıştırğan tüntäreleş näticäsendä Böyek Mitridat Pantikapey şähärendä (bügenge Keriç) hälaq bula.

Mitridat wafatınnan soñ Rim Respublikası Keçe Aziäne basıp ala.

Midridat Eupator ellinistik Könçığış soñğı patşası bulğan.

Mitridat Eupator istälegenä Keriç şähärendä taw häm Qırım şähäre Eupatoriä (Kizläw) atalğan.


Superhero yang tepat dari segi sejarah? Kisah Mithridates VI yang luar biasa

Terdapat banyak filem superhero pada masa ini, nampaknya menjadi subjek yang popular dan francais yang dibina di sekitar watak-watak super seperti The Avengers, X-Men, Wonderwoman dan Superman mempunyai banyak pengikut.

Jika anda suka cerita mengenai orang yang mempunyai kemampuan super, pertimbangkan kehidupan Raja Mithridates Eupator VI dari Pontus. Dilahirkan pada tahun 135B.C. pada tahun yang sama komet terang menerangi langit.

(Bagi orang-orang Timur komet disebutkan nasib baik, tetapi bagi orang Yunani dan Rom, komet sering dikaitkan dengan bencana atau malapetaka. Banyak syiling dari Mithridates pada awal pemerintahan, sering memaparkan bintang dan komet pada mereka).

Lelaki Berbakat

Mithridates mempunyai keturunan Yunani dan Parsi, dia adalah juara seni dan sains, suka muzik dan terkenal berbahasa banyak. Dia mengumpulkan dan membuat katalog batu permata, jurutera-juruteranya mengembangkan kilang berkuasa air dan mesin pengepungan yang sangat maju. Dia dikatakan mengagumi Alexander Agung (yang hidup sekitar dua abad sebelum dia). Tetapi dia juga dikatakan berpakaian seperti salah seorang raja Parsi kuno.

Dia adalah salah satu musuh paling mematikan Republik Rom.

Tetapi masa kecilnya trauma. Pada tahun 120B.C., ayahnya (Mithridates V) telah dibunuh (dengan keracunan) di sebuah jamuan. Penjahat ibunya sendiri Laodice dan saudaranya Chrestus, langsung mengambil alih kerajaan dan berkomplot melawan Mithridates muda.

Dalam Larian

Dia melarikan diri dan tinggal di padang gurun selama beberapa tahun. Pada masa ini, dia mengembangkan minat terhadap racun dan penawar.

Terdapat khabar angin bahawa dia akan bereksperimen secara berkala pada dirinya sendiri, untuk mengembangkan kekebalan manusia yang sangat hebat dari banyak racun. Satu kisah yang menarik adalah bahawa dia telah mengembangkan penawar terhadap semua toksin semula jadi. Mithridates keluar dari padang belantara dan kembali ke Pontus sekitar tahun 116-113B.C.

Kepulangan Raja

Dia telah menjadi kuat dan sekarang orang-orang Pontus (sekarang Turki Utara), menyambutnya kembali sebagai raja mereka. Sekembalinya, dia disuruh ibu dan saudaranya dimasukkan ke dalam penjara, (di mana mereka berdua mati).

Minatnya terhadap racun dan penawar bertambah, dia seharusnya memiliki kebun yang penuh dengan tanaman beracun (beracun). He also got his servants to collect poisons from scorpions, snakes, jellyfish and even stingray barbs.

He decided to increase his power by invading countries nearby or manipulating policy in rival kingdoms to his advantage. However, the Roman Republic was also gaining territory in that part of the world.

Pembunuhan beramai-ramai

To the people of Pontus, he was a superhero, but to the Romans he was considered a supervillain. (In fact, some historians say that they regarded him as a ‘second Hannibal’)

He masterminded the massacre of between 80,000 to 100,000 Roman men, women and children in Anatolia (now Turkey), on one day in 88B.C. As Adrienne Mayor points out on her book ‘The Poison King’: A sudden attack on this scale, with no intelligence leaks, must have taken an incredible amount of planning and coordination on the part of Mithridates and his followers.

He fought three major wars against the Romans and their allies (Later called the Mithridatic Wars). In one battle ‘Zela’ in 67B.C. he killed over 7,000 Roman soldiers.

He was eventually defeated at Dasteria (later called Nicopolis) by the Roman General Pompey. He fled and tried to rally more support, but his remaining forces then chose to support his son Pharnaces II of Pontus, friend of Pompey and sadly for Mithridates, an ally of Rome.


Event #5512: Mithridates VI of Pontus

Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI from Old Persian Miθradāta, “gift of Mithra” 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Gnaeus Pompey Magnus. He is often considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.

Mithridates VI was a prince of Persian and Greek ancestry. He claimed descent from Cyrus the Great, the family of Darius the Great, the Regent Antipater, the generals of Alexander the Great as well as the later kings Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Seleucus I Nicator.

Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, and was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus. He was the first son among the children born to Laodice VI and Mithridates V of Pontus (reigned 150–120 BC). His father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic Monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa. His mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid Princess and the daughter of the Seleucid Monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes and his wife-sister Laodice IV.

Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held. He left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates’ mother, Laodice VI, Mithridates, and his younger brother, Mithridates Chrestus. Neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, and their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC (even perhaps up to 113 BC) and favored Mithridates Chrestus over Mithridates. During his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mother’s plots against him, and went into hiding.

Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king. He removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus. Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes. Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison also, or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates gave both royal funerals. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16. His goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, and to ensure the succession to his legitimate children.

Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and Anatolia. He first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, and prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He then clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus. The most important centres of Crimea, Tauric Chersonesus and the Bosporan Kingdom readily surrendered their independence in return for Mithridates’ promises to protect them against the Scythians, their ancient enemies. After several abortive attempts to invade the Crimea, the Scythians and the allied Rhoxolanoi suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Pontic general Diophantus and accepted Mithridates as their overlord. The young king then turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Paphlagonia and Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia. It soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic. When Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, and defeated him in a series of battles, the latter was constrained to openly enlist the assistance of Rome. The Romans twice interfered in the conflict on behalf of Nicomedes (95–92 BC), leaving Mithridates, should he wish to continue the expansion of his kingdom, with little choice other than to engage in a future Roman-Pontic war.

The next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans. Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, declared war on Pontus. Rome itself was involved in the Social War, a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were only two legions present in Macedonia. These legions combined with Nicomedes IV’s army to invade Mithridates’ kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC. Mithridates, however, won a decisive victory, scattering the Roman-led forces. His victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia. The following year, 88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities, essentially wiping out the Roman presence in the region. This episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers. The Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Greek and Anatolian cities. The royal family moved the capital from Amasya to the Greek city of Sinope. Its rulers tried to fully assimilate the potential of their subjects by showing a Greek face to the Greek world and an Iranian/Anatolian face to the Eastern world. Whenever the gap between the rulers and their Anatolian subjects became greater, they would put emphasis on their Persian origins. In this manner, the royal propaganda claimed heritage both from Persian and Greek rulers, including Cyrus the Great, Darius I of Persia, Alexander the Great and Seleucus I Nicator. Mithridates too posed as the champion of Hellenism, but this was mainly to further his political ambitions it is no proof that he felt a mission to promote its extension within his domains. Whatever his true intentions, the Greek cities (including Athens) defected to the side of Mithridates and welcomed his armies in mainland Greece, while his fleet besieged the Romans at Rhodes. Neighboring King of Armenia Tigranes the Great, established an alliance with Mithridates and married one of Mithridates’ daughters, Cleopatra of Pontus. They would support each other in the coming conflict with Rome.

The Romans responded by organising a large invasion force to defeat him and remove him from power.The First Mithridatic War, fought between 88 BC and 84 BC, saw Lucius Cornelius Sulla force Mithridates VI out of Greece proper. After victory in several battles, Sulla received news of trouble back in Rome posed by his enemy Gaius Marius and hurriedly concluded peace talks with Mithridates. As Sulla returned to Italy Lucius Licinius Murena was left in charge of Roman forces in Anatolia. The lenient peace treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate, allowed Mithridates VI to recoup his forces. Murena attacked Mithridates in 83 BC, provoking the Second Mithridatic War from 83 BC to 81 BC. Mithridates scored a victory over Murena’s green forces before peace was again declared by treaty.

When Rome attempted to annex Bithynia (bequested to Rome by its last king) nearly a decade later, Mithridates VI attacked with an even larger army, leading to the Third Mithridatic War from 73 BC to 63 BC. First Lucullus and then Pompey were sent against Mithridates VI, who surged back to retake his kingdom of Pontus, but was at last defeated by Pompey. After Pompey defeated him in Pontus in 66 BC, Mithridates VI fled with a small army to Colchis (modern Georgia) and then over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares, viceroy of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father. Mithridates had Machares killed, and Mithridates took the throne of the Bosporan Kingdom. Mithridates then ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces II of Pontus, one of his sons, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates’ Pontic army. Mithridates withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates in the rock-cut tombs of his ancestors in Amasya, the old capital of Pontus.

During the time of the First Mithridatic War, a group of Mithridates’ friends plotted to kill him. These were Mynnio and Philotimus of Smyrna, and Cleisthenes and Asclepiodotus of Lesbos. Asclepiodotus changed his mind and became an informant. He arranged to have Mithridates hide under a couch to hear the plot against him. The other conspirators were tortured and executed. However, this was not enough for Mithridates, who also killed all of the plotters’ families and friends.

Where his ancestors pursued philhellenism as a means of attaining respectability and prestige among the Hellenistic kingdoms, Mithridates VI made use of Hellenism as a political tool. As protector of Greek cities on the Black Sea and in Asia against barbarism, Mithridates VI logically became protector of Greece and Greek culture, and would use this stance in his clashes with Rome. Strabo mentions that Chersonesus buckled under the pressure of the barbarians and asked Mithridates VI to become its protector (7.4.3. c.308). The most impressive symbol of Mithridates VI’s approbation with Greece (Athens in particular) appears at Delos: a heroon dedicated to the Pontic king in 102/1 by the Athenian Helianax, a priest of Poseidon Aisios. A dedication at Delos, by Dicaeus, a priest of Sarapis, was made in 94/93 BC on behalf of the Athenians, Romans, and “King Mithridates Eupator Dionysus.” Greek styles mixed with Persian elements also abound on official Pontic coins – Perseus was favored as an intermediary between both worlds, East and West. Certainly influenced by Alexander the Great, Mithridates VI extended his propaganda from “defender” of Greece to the “great liberator” of the Greek world as war with Roman Republic became inevitable. The Romans were easily translated into “barbarians”, in the same sense as the Persian Empire during the war with Persia in the first half of the 5th century BC and during Alexander’s campaign. How many Greeks genuinely bought into this claim will never be known. It served its purpose, however. At least partially because of it, Mithridates VI was able to fight the First War with Rome on Greek soil, and maintain the allegiance of Greece. His campaign for the allegiance of the Greeks was aided in no small part by his enemy Sulla, who allowed his troops to sack the city of Delphi and plunder many of the city’s most famous treasures to help finance his military expenses.

After Pompey defeated him in Pontus, Mithridates VI fled to the lands north of the Black Sea in the winter of 66 BCE in the hope that he could raise a new army and carry on the war. However, his preparations proved to be too harsh on the local nobles and populace, and they rebelled against his rule. He allegedly attempted suicide by poison this attempt failed, however, because of his immunity to the poison. According to Appian’s Roman History, he then requested his Gaulish bodyguard and friend, Bituitus, to kill him by the sword:

Mithridates then took out some poison that he always carried next to his sword, and mixed it. There two of his daughters, who were still girls growing up together, named Mithridates and Nysa, who had been betrothed to the kings of [Ptolemaic] Egypt and of Cyprus, asked him to let them have some of the poison first, and insisted strenuously and prevented him from drinking it until they had taken some and swallowed it. The drug took effect on them at once but upon Mithridates, although he walked around rapidly to hasten its action, it had no effect, because he had accustomed himself to other drugs by continually trying them as a means of protection against poisoners. These are still called the Mithridatic drugs.

Seeing a certain Bituitus there, an officer of the Gauls, he said to him, “I have profited much from your right arm against my enemies. I shall profit from it most of all if you will kill me, and save from the danger of being led in a Roman triumph one who has been an autocrat so many years, and the ruler of so great a kingdom, but who is now unable to die by poison because, like a fool, he has fortified himself against the poison of others. Although I have kept watch and ward against all the poisons that one takes with his food, I have not provided against that domestic poison, always the most dangerous to kings, the treachery of army, children, and friends.” Bituitus, thus appealed to, rendered the king the service that he desired.

Cassius Dio Roman History, on the other hand, records a different account:

Mithridates had tried to make away with himself, and after first removing his wives and remaining children by poison, he had swallowed all that was left yet neither by that means nor by the sword was he able to perish by his own hands. For the poison, although deadly, did not prevail over him, since he had inured his constitution to it, taking precautionary antidotes in large doses every day and the force of the sword blow was lessened on account of the weakness of his hand, caused by his age and present misfortunes, and as a result of taking the poison, whatever it was. When, therefore, he failed to take his life through his own efforts and seemed to linger beyond the proper time, those whom he had sent against his son fell upon him and hastened his end with their swords and spears. Thus Mithridates, who had experienced the most varied and remarkable fortune, had not even an ordinary end to his life. For he desired to die, albeit unwillingly, and though eager to kill himself was unable to do so but partly by poison and partly by the sword he was at once self-slain and murdered by his foes.

At the behest of Pompey, Mithridates’ body was later buried alongside his ancestors (in either Sinope or Amaseia). Mount Mithridat in the central Kerch and the town of Yevpatoria in Crimea commemorate his name.

In his youth, after the assassination of his father Mithridates V in 120 BC, Mithridates is said to have lived in the wilderness for seven years, inuring himself to hardship. While there, and after his accession, he cultivated an immunity to poisons by regularly ingesting sub-lethal doses of the same. He invented a complex “universal antidote” against poisoning several versions are described in the literature. Aulus Cornelius Celsus gives one in his De Medicina and names it Antidotum Mithridaticum, whence English mithridate. Pliny the Elder’s version comprised 54 ingredients to be placed in a flask and matured for at least two months. After Mithridates’ death in 63 BC, many imperial Roman physicians claimed to possess and improve on the original formula, which they touted as Mithradatium. In keeping with most medical practices of his era, Mithridates’ anti-poison routines included a religious component they were supervised by the Agari, a group of Scythian shamans who never left him. Mithridates was reportedly guarded in his sleep by a horse, a bull, and a stag, which would whinny, bellow, and bleat whenever anyone approached the royal bed.

In Pliny the Elder’s account of famous polyglots, Mithridates could speak the languages of all the twenty-two nations he governed.

Mithridates VI had wives and mistresses, by whom he had various children. The names he gave his children are a representation of his Persian, Greek heritage and of his ancestry.

  1. First wife, his sister Laodice. They were married from 115/113 BC till about 90 BC. Mithridates with Laodice had various children:
    • Sons: Mithridates, Arcathius, Machares and Pharnaces II of Pontus
    • Daughters: Cleopatra of Pontus (sometimes called Cleopatra the Elder to distinguish her from her sister of the same name) and Drypetina (a diminutive form of “Drypetis”). Drypetina was Mithridates VI’s most devoted daughter. Her baby teeth never fell out, so she had a double set of teeth.
  2. Second wife, the Greek Macedonian Noblewoman, Monime. They were married from about 89/88 BC till 72/71 BC. By whom, he had:
    • Daughter: Athenais, who married King Ariobarzanes II of Cappadocia
  3. Third wife, Greek woman Berenice of Chios, married from 86–72/71 BC
  4. Fourth wife, Greek woman Stratonice of Pontus, married from after 86–63 BC
    • Son: Xiphares
  5. Fifth wife, unknown
  6. Sixth wife, Caucasian woman Hypsicratea, married from an unknown date to 63 BC

One of his mistresses was the Galatian Celtic Princess Adobogiona the Elder. By Adobogiona, Mithridates had two children: a son called Mithridates I of the Bosporus and a daughter called Adobogiona the Younger.

His sons born from his concubine were Cyrus, Xerxes, Darius, Ariarathes IX of Cappadocia, Artaphernes, Oxathres, Phoenix (Mithridates’ son by a mistress of Syrian descent) and Exipodras, named after kings of the Persian Empire, which he claimed ancestry from. His daughters born from his concubine were Nysa, Eupatra, Cleopatra the Younger, Mithridates and Orsabaris. Nysa and Mithridates, were engaged to the Egyptian Greek Pharaohs Ptolemy XII Auletes and his brother Ptolemy of Cyprus.

In 63 BC, when the Kingdom of Pontus was annexed by the Roman general Pompey the remaining sisters, wives, mistresses and children of Mithridates VI in Pontus were put to death. Plutarch writing in his lives (Pompey v.45) states that Mithridates’ sister and five of his children took part in Pompey’s triumphal procession on this return to Rome in 61 BC.

The Cappadocian Greek nobleman and high priest of the temple-state of Comana, Cappadocia Archelaus had descended from Mithridates VI. He claimed to be a son of Mithridates VI, however chronologically Archelaus may have been a maternal grandson of the Pontic King, who his father was Mithridates VI’s favorite general may have married one of the daughters of Mithridates VI.

Duggan, Alfred, He Died Old: Mithradates Eupator, King of Pontus, 1958.

Ford, Michael Curtis, The Last King: Rome’s Greatest Enemy, New York, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004, ISBN 0-312-27539-0

McGing, B. C. The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus (Mnemosyne, Supplements: 89), Leiden, Brill Academic Publishers, 1986, ISBN 90-04-07591-7

Cohen, Getzel M., Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands and Asia Minor (Berkeley, 1995).

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Reign of Mithridates I

Reign of Mithridates I. Position of Bactria and Syria at his accession. His first war with Bactria. His great Expedition against the Eastern Syrian provinces, and its results. His second war with Bactria, terminating in its conquest. Extent of his Empire. Attempt of Demetrius Nicator to recover the lost Provinces fails. Captivity of Demetrius. Death of Mithridates.

The reign of Mithridates I. is the most important in the Parthian history. [PLATE 1. Fig. 3.] Receiving from his brother Phraates a kingdom of but narrow dimensions, confined (as it would seem) between the city of Charax on the one side, and the river Arius, or Hori-rud, on the other, he transformed it, within the space of thirty-seven years (which was the time that his reign lasted), into a great and nourishing Empire. It is not too much to say that, but for him, Parthia might have remained a more petty State on the outskirts of the Syrian kingdom, and, instead of becoming a rival to Rome, might have sunk shortly into obscurity and insignificance.

As commonly happens in the grand changes which constitute the turning-points of history, the way for Mithridates's vast successes was prepared by a long train of antecedent circumstances. To show how the rise of the Parthians to greatness in the middle of the second century before our era was rendered possible, we must turn aside once more from our proper subject and cast a glance at the condition of the two kingdoms between which Parthia stood, at the time when Mithridates ascended the throne.

The Bactrian monarchs in their ambitious struggles to possess themselves of the tracts south of the Paropamisus, and extending from the Heri-rud to the Sutlej and the mouths of the Indus, overstrained the strength of their State, and by shifting the centre of its power injured irretrievably its principle of cohesion. As early as the reign of Demetrius a tendency to disruption showed itself, Eucratidas having held the supreme power for many years in Bactria itself, while Demetrius exercised authority on the southern side of the mountains. It is true that at the death of Demetrius this tendency was to a certain extent checked, since Eucratidas was then able to extend his sway over almost the whole of the Bactrian territory. But the old evil recurred shortly, though in a less pronounced form. Eucratidas, without being actually supplanted in the north by a rival, found that he could devote to that portion of the Empire but a small part of his attention. The southern countries and the prospect of southern and eastern conquests engrossed him. While he carried on successful wars with the Arachotians, the Drangians, and the Indians of the Punjaub region, his hold on the more northern countries was relaxed, and they began to slip from his grasp. Incursions of the nomad Scyths from the Steppes carried fire and sword over portions of these provinces, some of which were Even, it is probable, seized and occupied by the invaders.

Such was, it would seem, the condition of Bactria under Eucratidas, the contemporary of Mithridates. In Syria, Antiochus Epiphanes had succeeded his brother Seleucus IV. (Philopator) about a year before Mithridates ascended the Parthian throne. He was a prince of courage and energy but his hands were fully occupied with wars in Egypt, Palestine, and Armenia, and the distant East could attract but a small share of his thought or attention. The claim put forward by Egypt to the possession of Coele-Syria and Palestine, promised to Ptolemy V. (it was affirmed) as a dowry with Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus the Great, led to hostilities in the south-west which lasted continuously for four years (B.C. 171 to B.C. 168), and were complicated during two of them with troubles in Judaea, rashly provoked by the Syrian monarch, who, unaware of the stubborn temper of the Jews, goaded them into insurrection. The war with Egypt came to an end in B.C. 168 it brought Syria no advantage, since Rome interposed, and required the restitution of all conquests. The war with the Jews had no such rapid termination. Antiochus, having not only plundered and desecrated the Temple, but having set himself to eradicate utterly the Jewish religion, and completely Hellenize the people, was met with the most determined resistance on the part of a moiety of the nation. A patriotic party rose up under devoted leaders, who asserted, and in the end secured, the independence of their country. Not alone during the remaining years of Epiphanes, but for half a century after his death, throughout seven reigns, the struggle continued Judaea taking advantage of every trouble and difficulty in Syria to detach herself more and more completely from her oppressor being a continual thorn in her side, a constant source of weakness, preventing more than anything else the recovery of her power. The triumph which Epiphanes obtained in the distant Armenia (B.C. 166-5), where he defeated and captured the king, Artaxias, was a poor set-off against the foe which he had created to himself at his doors through his cruelty and intolerance.

In another quarter, too, the Syrian power received a severe shake through the injudicious violence of Epiphanes. The Oriental temples had, in some instances, escaped the rapacity of Alexander's generals and "Successors" their treasuries remained unviolated, and contained large hoards of the precious metals. Epiphanes, having exhausted his own exchequer by his wars and his lavish gifts, saw in these un-plundered stores a means of replenishing it, and made a journey into his south-eastern provinces for the purpose. The natives of Elymais, however, resisted his attempt, and proved strong enough to defeat it the baffled monarch retired to Tabae, where he shortly afterward fell sick and died. In the popular belief his death was a judgment upon him for his attempted sacrilege and in the exultation caused by the event the bands which joined these provinces to the Empire must undoubtedly have been loosened.

Nor did the removal of Epiphanes (B.C. 164) improve the condition of affairs in Syria. The throne fell to his son, Antiochus Eupator, a boy of nine, according to Appian, or, according to another authority, of twelve years of age. The regent, Lysias, exercised the chief power, and was soon engaged in a war with the Jews, whom the death of Epiphanes had encouraged to fresh efforts. The authority of Lysias was further disputed by a certain Philip, whom Epiphanes, shortly before his death, had made tutor to the young king. The claims of this tutor to the regent's office being supported by a considerable portion of the army, a civil war arose between him and Lysias, which raged for the greater part of two years (B.C. 163-2), terminating in the defeat and death of Philip. But Syrian affairs did not even then settle down into tranquillity. A prince of the Seleucid house, Demetrius by name, the son of Seleucus IV., and consequently the first cousin of Eupator, was at this time detained in Rome as a hostage, having been sent there during his father's lifetime as a security for his fidelity. Demetrius, with some reason, regarded his claim to the Syrian throne as better than that of his cousin, the son of the younger brother, and being in the full vigor of early youth, he determined to assert his pretensions in Syria, and to make a bold stroke for the crown. Having failed to obtain the Senate's consent to his quitting Italy, he took his departure secretly, crossed the Mediterranean in a Carthaginian vessel, and, landing in Asia, succeeded within a few months in establishing himself as Syrian monarch.

From this review it sufficiently appears that the condition of things, both in Syria and Bactria, was favorable to any aspirations which the power that lay between them might entertain after dominion and self-aggrandizement. The Syrian and Bactrian kings, at the time of Mithridates's accession, were, both of them, men of talent and energy but the Syrian monarch was soon involved in difficulties at home, while the Bactrian had his attention attracted to prospects of advantage in a remote quarter, Mithridates might, perhaps, have attacked the territory of either with an equal chance of victory and as his predecessor had set him the example of successful warfare on his western frontier, we might have expected his first efforts to have been in this direction, against the dependencies of Syria. But circumstances which we cannot exactly trace determined his choice differently. While Eucratidas was entangled in his Indian wars, Mithridates invaded the Bactrian territory where it adjoined Parthia, and added to his Empire, after a short struggle, two provinces, called respectively Turiua and that of Aspionus. It is conjectured that these provinces lay towards the north and the north-west, the one being that of the Turanians proper, and the other that of the Aspasiacae, who dwelt between the Jaxartes and the Oxus. But there is scarcely sufficient ground for forming even a conjecture on the subject, since speculation has nothing but the names themselves to rest upon.

Successful in this quarter, Mithridates, a few years later, having waited until the Syrian throne was occupied by the boy Eupator, and the two claimants of the regency, Lysias and Philip, were contending in arms for the supreme power, made suddenly an expedition towards the west, falling upon Media, which, though claimed by the Syrian kings as a province of their Empire, was perhaps at this time almost, if not quite, independent. The Medes offered a vigorous resistance to his attack and, in the war which followed, each side had in turn the advantage but eventually the Parthian prince proved victorious, and the great and valuable province of Media Magna was added to the dominons of the Arsacidae. A certain Bacasis was appointed to govern it, whether as satrap or as tributary monarch is not apparent while the Parthian king, recalled towards home by a revolt, proceeded to crush rebellion before resuming his career of conquest.

The revolt which now occupied for a time the attention of Mithridates was that of Hyrcania. The Hyrcanians were Arians in race they were brave and high-spirited, and under the Persian monarchs had enjoyed some exceptional privileges which placed them above the great mass of the conquered nations. It was natural that they should dislike the yoke of a Turanian people and it was wise of them to make their effort to obtain their freedom before Parthia grew into a power against which revolt would be utterly hopeless. Hyrcania might now expect to be joined by the Medes, and even the Mardi, who were Arians like themselves, and could not yet have forgotten the pleasures of independence. But though the effort does not seem to have been ill-timed, it was unsuccessful. No aid was given to the rebels, so far as we hear, by any of their neighbors. Mithridates's prompt return nipped the insurrection in the bud Hyrcania at once submitted, and became for centuries the obedient vassal of her powerful neighbor.

The conquest of Media had brought the Parthians into contact with the rich country of Susiana or Elymais and it was not long before Mithridates, having crushed the Hyrcanian revolt, again advanced westward, and invaded this important province. Elymais appears to have a had a king of its own, who must either have been a vassal of the Seleucidse, or have acquired an independent position by revolt after the death of Epiphanes. In the war which followed between this monarch and Mithridates, the Elymseans proved wholly unsuccessful, and Mithridates rapidly overran the country and added it to his dominions. After this he appears to have received the submission of the Persians on the one hand and the Babylonians on the other, and to have rested on his laurels for some years, having extended the Parthian sway from the Hindoo Koosh to the Euphrates.

The chronological data which have come down to us for this period are too scanty to allow of any exact statement of the number of years occupied by Mithridates in effecting these conquests. All that can be said is that he appears to have commenced them about B.C. 163 and to have concluded them some time before B.C. 140, when he was in his turn attacked by the Syrians. Probably they had been all effected by the year B.C. 150 since there is reason to believe that about that time Mithridates found his power sufficiently established in the west to allow of his once more turning his attention eastward, and renewing his aggressions upon the Bactrian kingdom, which had passed from the rule of Eucratidas under that of his son and successor, Heliocles.

Heliocles, who was allowed by his father a quasi-royal position, obtained the full possession of the Bactrian throne by the crime of parricide. It is conjectured that he regarded with disapproval his father's tame submission to Parthian ascendency, and desired the recovery of the provinces which Eucratidas had been content to cede for the sake of peace. We are told that he justified his crime on the ground that his father was a public enemy which is best explained by supposing that he considered him the friend of Bactria's great enemy, Parthia. If this be the true account of the circumstances under which he became king, his accession would have been a species of challenge to the Parthian monarch, whose ally he had assassinated. Mithridates accordingly marched against him with all speed, and, easily defeating his troops, took possession of the greater part of his dominion. Elated by this success, he is said to have pressed eastward, to have invaded India, and overrun the country as far as the river Hydaspes, but, if it be true that his arms penetrated so far, it is, at any rate, certain that he did not here effect any conquest. Greek monarchs of the Bactrian series continued masters of Oabul and Western India till about B.C. 126 no Parthian coins are found in this region nor do the best authorities claim for Mithridates any dominion beyond the mountains which enclose on the west the valley of the Indus.

By his war with Heliocles the empire of Mithridates reached its greatest extension. It comprised now, besides Parthia Proper, Bactria, Aria, Drangiana, Arachosia, Margiana, Hyrcania, the country of the Mardi, Media Magna, Susiana, Persia and Babylonia. Very probably its limits were still wider. The power which possessed Parthia, Hyrcania, and Bactria, would rule almost of necessity over the whole tract between the Elburz range and the Oxus, if not even over the region between the Oxus and the Jaxartes that which held the Caspian mountains and eastern Media could not fail to have influence over the tribes of the Iranic desert while Assyria Proper would naturally follow the fortunes of Babylonia and Susiana. Still the extent of territory thus indicated rests only on conjecture. If we confine ourselves to what is known by positive evidence, we can only say that the Parthian Kingdom of this period contained, at least, twelve provinces above enumerated. It thus stretched from east to west a distance of fifteen hundred miles between the Suleiman mountains and the Euphrates, varying in width from three or four hundred miles&mdashor even more&mdashtowards the west and east, to a narrow strip of less than a hundred miles toward the centre. It probably comprised an area of about 450,000 square miles which is somewhat less than that of the modern Persia.

Unlike the modern Persia, however, the territory consisted almost entirely of productive regions. The excellent quality of the soil in Parthia Proper, Hyrcania, and Margiana, has been already noticed. Bactria, the next province to Margiana towards the east, was less uniformly fertile but still it contained a considerable proportion of good land along the course of the Oxus and its tributaries, which was cultivated in vineyards and cornfields, or else pastured large herds of cattle. The Mardian mountain territory was well wooded and the plain between the mountains and the Caspian was rich in the extreme. Media, where it adjoined on the desert, was comparatively sterile but still even here an elaborate system of artificial irrigation brought a belt of land under culture. Further west, in the Zagros chain, Media comprised some excellent pasture lands, together with numerous valleys as productive as any in Asia. Elymais was, in part, of the same character with the mountainous portion of Media, while beyond the mountain it sank down into a rich alluvium, not much inferior to the Babylonian. Babylonia itself was confessedly the most fertile country in Asia. It produced wheat, barley, millet, sesame, vetches, dates, and fruits of all kinds. The return of the wheat crop was from fifty to a hundred-and-fifty-fold while that of the barley crop was three hundred-fold. The dates were of unusual size and superior flavor and the palm, which abounded throughout the region, furnished an inexhaustible supply both of fruit and timber.



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