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Niagara VII PG-52 - Sejarah

Niagara VII PG-52 - Sejarah


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Niagara VII
(PG-52: dp. 1,922 (f.); 1. 267 '; b. 35'4 "; dr. 17'; s. 16 k .; cpl.139; a. 2 3")

Niagara ketujuh (PG-52), kapal layar yang dibina pada tahun 1929 sebagai Hi-Esmare oleh Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, dibeli oleh Angkatan Laut 16 Oktober 1940 dari Puan H. Edward Manville dari New York City; ditukar menjadi kapal senapang oleh New York Navy Yard; dinamakan semula Niagara 12 November 1940; dan ditugaskan di New York 20 Januari 1941, Letnan Edwin W. Herron sebagai ketua.

Niagara mulai beroperasi dari New York 4 Februari 1941 untuk menender unit Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 2 yang beroperasi antara Miami dan Key West, Fla., Dan Guantanamo Bay Cuba. Dia meninggalkan Key West pada 20 Mac 1941 untuk pembaikan di New York dan operasi di Stesen Naval Torpedo, Newport, R.I. pada musim panas.

Niagara menonjol dari New York 30 Ogos 1941 dalam perjalanan ke Hawaii, melalui Teluk Guantanamo, Terusan Panama, dan San Diego, tiba di Pearl Harbor 9 Oktober untuk melakukan rondaan di Perairan Laut Hawaii. Pada 29 November dia berangkat sebagai unit pengiring untuk konvoi yang menuju ke Kepulauan Fiji. Dia berada di laut bersama konvoi ketika Jepun menyerang Pearl Harbor. Kapal gun itu kembali ke pelabuhan itu pada 15 Disember, sebagai tender kepada unit Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 1 hingga 1 April 1942.

Dia kemudian mengiringi sebuah konvoi ke San Diego yang menuju ke Coco Solo, Zona Terusan Panama, di mana dia merawat kapal torpedo dan membantu menjaga pendekatan ke Terusan Panama. Semasa baik pulih di New York Navy Yard pada musim panas, dia bersiap untuk bertugas di Newport, R. I. sebagai kapal sekolah untuk skuadron latihan kapal torpedo bermotor. Tugas ini berlanjutan sehingga dia menuju Pasifik Barat Daya 27 November melalui Terusan Panama dan Kepulauan Masyarakat. Enroute, pada 13 Januari 1943 Niagara diklasifikasikan semula sebagai tender kapal torpedo motor pertama Angkatan Laut dan direka semula AGT'-I.

Niagara tiba di Noumea, Kaledonia Baru 17 Januari dan mula merawat Motor Torpedo Boat Division 23, Squadron 8. Dia berlayar dengan divisi pada 27 dan sampai di markasnya di Tulagi, Kepulauan Solomon, 17 Februari. Pada bulan-bulan berikutnya, dia merawat kapal torpedo bermotor yang menjalankan rondaan keselamatan di Guadalcanal.

Pada 7 April Jepun menyerang wilayah Guadalcanal-Tulagi dengan 177 pesawat, di mana sekitar 25 ditembak jatuh. Dua bom tenggelam korvet New Zealand Moa. Niagara, dalam tebal

pertarungan itu, berada di utara pelabuhan, berlabuh ke tebing barat Sungai Maliali, menuju ke hilir dengan Rel penyapu ranjau (AM-26) diikat di luar. Sembilan pesawat musuh menyusuri sungai, tidak ada satupun yang berada lebih dari 150 kaki di atas air. Niagara dan Rail membawa mereka semua terbakar.

Pesawat pertama, sudah terbakar, menabrak pokok kira-kira 1.000 ela dari Niagara. Dua pesawat seterusnya melarikan diri tetapi ketinggian keempat hilang dengan cepat dalam arus asap putih untuk meletup di belakang bukit di utara. Dua penyerang berikut melintas dalam jarak 150 ela dan berusaha menggegarkan kapal, tetapi penembakan mereka tidak menentu dan mereka bergoyang dengan tidak pasti ketika mereka melalui api besar Niagara sebelum menabrak hutan di kawasan pelabuhannya. Dua pesawat berikutnya dicukur dan ke kanan semasa dibawa ke bawah api. Satu kepulan asap berwarna coklat muda menghilang di puncak bukit yang memenuhi sinar pelabuhan Niagara. Yang lain melintas ke kanan dan jatuh di bukit di kawasan kanannya.

Pada 22 Mei Niagara, bersama Motor Torpedo Boat Division 23, berangkat Tulagi menuju ke New Guinea. Pada keesokan harinya, monoplane bermesin kembar Jepun yang terbang tinggi diserang dengan empat bom. Kapal membuat putaran starDoard yang ketat pada kelajuan maksimum sehingga bom dilepaskan kemudian mengayunkan kapal ke pelabuhan. Tiga hampir melesat ke kanan dan satu ke port gear suara Niagara yang rosak dan mekanisme latihan satu pistol 3-inci dan mematikan kawalan stereng buat sementara waktu. Setengah jam kemudian, ketika eontrol kemudi kembali, enam pesawat enjin berkembar terbang tinggi menjatuhkan corak lebih dari selusin bom. Satu terkena tembakan langsung di ramalan Niagara dan beberapa daripadanya merosakkan miGses.

Air mengalir melalui lubang 14 inci 6 kaki di bawah airnya] membanjiri dua bilik stor, sebuah lorong, dan bilik enjinnya. Semua kuasa dan pencahayaan gagal, dan enjin utamanya berhenti. Api di bawah geladak ke depan tidak dapat dikawal, dan Niagara menyenaraikan dengan pantas ke pelabuhan. Mesin dan stereng utamanya dipulihkan 7 minit selepas serangan. Tetapi daftarnya yang semakin meningkat dan bahaya akan meletup tangki simpanan petrolnya memerlukan perintah untuk "meninggalkan kapal."

PT-146 dan PT-147 bersama-sama dengan tegasnya untuk melepaskan beberapa kru Niagara. Yang lain menyeberang ke kapal rakit dan kapal untuk diambil oleh kapal torpedo bermotor yang lain. Niagara kemudian terbakar dari busur ke jambatan. Api menyebar di belakang, dan peluru meletup di geladak. Namun, walaupun mengalami kerosakan, tidak seorang pun dari 136 pegawai dan lelaki Niagara terbunuh atau cedera parah.

PT-147 melepaskan torpedo yang melanda Niagara di tangki petrol. Dia meletup dengan kepingan api setinggi 300 kaki, dan turun dalam waktu kurang dari satu minit. Bot torpedo bermotor mendarat anak buahnya di Tulagi pada keesokan paginya.

Niagara menerima satu bintang pertempuran untuk perkhidmatan Perang Dunia II.


RMS Niagara

RMS Niagara adalah kapal laut wap transpacific, Royal Mail Ship dan kapal kargo sejuk. Dia dilancarkan pada tahun 1912 di Scotland dan tenggelam pada tahun 1940 oleh sebuah lombong di lepas pantai New Zealand.

Laluan tetapnya adalah antara Sydney dan Vancouver melalui Auckland, Suva dan Honolulu. Dalam kerjayanya selama 27 tahun, dia melakukan 162 perjalanan pergi balik antara Australia, New Zealand dan Kanada dan menempuh jarak hampir 2,500,000 batu nautika (4,600,000 km).

Niagara pertama dimiliki oleh Union Steam Ship Company dari New Zealand (yang dikenali sebagai "Union Company"), dan kemudian oleh Canadian-Australasian Line, yang dimiliki bersama oleh Union Company dan Canadian Pacific. Seperti banyak kapal Union Company, dia didaftarkan di London di United Kingdom.

Niagara dibina untuk membakar arang batu atau minyak. Dia adalah kapal uap pembakar minyak pertama yang diperakui oleh Lembaga Perdagangan untuk membawa penumpang. Semasa baru, Niagara adalah kapal dagang terbesar yang dimiliki oleh syarikat New Zealand. Pada tahun 1914 dan 1915 dia membuat sejumlah catatan kecepatan untuk menyeberangi Laut Tasman.

Pada tahun 1918 Niagara berperanan dalam penyebaran selesema Sepanyol ke New Zealand.

Ketika dia tenggelam pada tahun 1940, Niagara membawa sekitar 8 1 ⁄ 2 tan jongkong emas. Penyelam memperoleh 555 batang pada tahun 1941, dan 30 batang lagi pada tahun 1953, tetapi lima jongkong emas masih belum dijelaskan.

Niagara ditaburkan dengan minyak ketika dia tenggelam. Minyak bahan bakar berat telah bocor dari tangki bunkernya sejak itu, dan telah menyebabkan beberapa kerosakan persekitaran di dalam dan sekitar Teluk Hauraki. Sebilangan minyak masih dalam bangkai kapal, dan skala ancaman alam sekitar yang mungkin timbul terus diperdebatkan.


Rekod itu Artikel dan Indeks Lokasi

Ramai penyelidik akan merasa berguna untuk melayari, mencari dan menapis ribuan artikel yang terdapat di dalamnya Rekod itu mengikut tajuk dan lokasi. Indeks interaktif kami untuk artikel berdasarkan tajuk dan lokasi utama muncul pada bulan Julai 2020 berkat kerja keras pasukan NYG & ampB, termasuk sukarelawan dan pelatih.

Indeks ini sangat berguna untuk menemui artikel mengenai topik dan lokasi penyelidikan anda sendiri — tanpa mengira nama dan keluarga yang diliputi, artikel ini dapat membantu anda menemui petunjuk dan sumber penting untuk digunakan dalam penyelidikan anda sendiri. Ia juga sangat berguna untuk mencari artikel bersiri yang diterbitkan dalam pelbagai ansuran. Lawati Indeks Artikel Rekod NYG & ampB.


Penyelesaian

Ramai yang mendaftar di unit Loyalis dan akhirnya berpindah ke British North America. Selepas Revolusi Amerika, sebuah rangkaian tidak rasmi dikembangkan yang membantu budak-budak yang melarikan diri ini bergerak ke utara. Dengan berlalunya masa, rangkaian ini dikenali sebagai Kereta Api Bawah Tanah. Amherstburg, di hujung barat Upper Canada, menjadi salah satu pintu masuk utama bagi jalan keluarnya budak-budak yang melarikan diri ke kebebasan.

Pandangan Amherstburg ini menunjukkan bagaimana masyarakat kelihatan pada hari-hari terakhir kereta api bawah tanah.


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Jalan Utama, Amherstburg, 1865
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Masthead Suara Orang Melarikan Diri
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Mencari dokumentasi di Kereta Api Bawah Tanah adalah sukar. Ia beroperasi secara rahsia di Amerika Syarikat dan harus beroperasi secara senyap di Kanada untuk mengelakkan insiden perbatasan. Sebilangan besar bahan yang ada menunjukkan beberapa orang yang terlibat, dan di mana mereka mungkin tinggal atau mencari tempat tinggal.

Salah satu sumber maklumat langsung mengenai aktiviti anggota Kereta Api Bawah Tanah adalah surat khabar kontemporari, seperti Suara Orang Fugitif, yang merupakan akhbar pertama yang dimiliki dan dikendalikan oleh orang kulit hitam di Ontario. Ia ditubuhkan dan diterbitkan di Sandwich and Windsor oleh Henry Bibb, yang melarikan diri, pertama ke Detroit dan kemudian ke Kanada, setelah berlakunya Fugitive Slave Act. Akhbar ini pertama kali muncul pada 1 Januari 1851, dan berhenti diterbitkan pada tahun 1854.

Levi Veney adalah salah seorang bekas hamba yang menuju ke Kanada Atas. Dia mendapat perlindungan di salah satu rumah yang didirikan untuk memberi perlindungan dan bantuan segera kepada mereka yang melintasi sempadan. Park House di Colchester South adalah stesen jalan penting bagi mereka yang memasuki wilayah tersebut.


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Levi Veney, bekas hamba yang tinggal di Amherstburg,
diambil di kedai J. D. Burkes & # 8217, 1898
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Park House, Colchester South, tempat perlindungan hamba pada tahun 1800-an, [ca. 1950]
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Komuniti kulit hitam di Kanada Atas menyokong Mahkota pada masa krisis. Semasa Perang 1812, tentera militan berkhidmat di Queenston Heights. Semasa Pemberontakan tahun 1837, rasa takut akan aneksasi ke Amerika Syarikat dan kemungkinan kembali ke perbudakan memperkuat Loyalisme masyarakat kulit hitam yang sudah kuat dan kesediaannya untuk berkhidmat di milisi. Sebahagian daripada minat Alvin McCurdy dalam sejarah didorong oleh kegagalan ahli sejarah untuk mencatat penyertaan orang kulit hitam dalam konflik ini.


Legend of Niagara: Maid of the Mist

Perjalanan awal dari sisi Amerika ke sisi Kanada selalu menjadi usaha yang berbahaya dan pada pertengahan tahun 1800-an muncul keperluan pasti untuk kaedah berkelanjutan untuk menyeberangi jurang Niagara. Pada awal tahun 1825 perkhidmatan feri swasta telah berkembang di tebing sungai.

Gambar awal Pembantu Mist

Biasanya kapten kapal kecil ini adalah petani yang memiliki tanah di mana dermaga itu berada. Buku Panduan Air Terjun Niagara tahun 1941 merujuk kepada kapal-kapal barisan kecil ini yang melayari sungai, kadang-kadang berjumlah hingga 40 atau lebih. Biasanya perjalanan dari sisi Amerika ke Kanada tidak berlaku, dan tidak ada laporan mengenai kemalangan yang berlaku.

Pada bulan Mei 1846, Maid of the Mist berkuasa wap pertama dilancarkan dengan banyak peminat. Kapal itu seperti kapal tongkang besar dengan dua batang berasap, beratnya melebihi 100 tan. Selama beberapa tahun ia mengangkut barang dan orang di seberang sungai, namun pada tahun 1848 jambatan gantung pertama dibina di atas gaung dan ini sangat mempengaruhi perkhidmatan feri.

Barang dan perkhidmatan tidak lagi harus diangkut di sungai. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat industri baru yang berkembang pesat - industri pelancongan, dan sementara Maid of the Mist tidak lagi membawa pelancong dari satu sisi ke sisi lain, mereka sekarang membawa generasi pengembara baru…. mereka yang ingin melihat keindahan air terjun dari dekat, dan bersedia membayarnya.

Pembantu Mist menghampiri pendaratan di sisi Kanada, [ca. 1880]

Pada bulan Mei 1854, Maid of the Mist yang lebih besar dilancarkan. Kapal ini adalah kapal tumpukan tunggal yang digerakkan oleh wap yang dikuasakan oleh mesin 100 kuasa kuda.

Salah satu penaungnya yang paling awal adalah Raja Edward VII, Putera Wales, yang pada 15 September 1860 membuat lawatan bersiar-siar di Maid of the Mist ke dasar American Falls.

Pembantu Mist kedua ini beroperasi sehingga musim gugur tahun 1860. Pada tahun 1861 kapal itu dijual di lelong peribadi dan dibeli oleh sebuah firma Montreal dengan syarat ia dihantar ke Lake Ontario.

Ini bermaksud bahawa Pembantu Mist harus menavigasi menyusuri Sungai Niagara, melalui Whirlpool Rapids, Whirlpool dan Lower Rapids. Sebilangan besar percaya bahawa itu adalah prestasi yang mustahil tetapi Cpt. Robinson ditemani oleh dua anak kapal yang lain melakukan perjalanan.

Perahu itu berangkat dari dermaga di Bellevue, New York dan dalam beberapa minit kapal itu diluncurkan di jeram Whirlpool. Kemudian ia akan tiba di Queenston, sedikit rosak, kapal pertama yang tiba di sana dari barat. (Lihat Kapten Joel Robinson)

Gambar awal Maid of the Mist Landing

Selama hampir dua puluh lima tahun lagi, tidak ada perkhidmatan feri di Sungai Niagara. Selama ini, setiap feri di sungai dilakukan secara eksklusif oleh perahu dayung kecil. Menjelang akhir tahun 1870-an dan dengan munculnya landasan kereta api, ribuan pelancong mengalir ke Air Terjun Niagara.

Pada tahun 1884, Maid of the Mist baru, kapal ketiga itu, dibina oleh R.F. Carter dan Frank LeBlond. Pembantu Mist ketiga ini terbukti begitu berjaya sehingga kapal kedua ditambahkan ke armada. Kedua kapal baru ini lebih kuat dari sebelumnya dan membawa pelancong lebih dekat dan dekat dengan dasar air terjun.

Dilaporkan bahawa Kapten Carter melakukan enam puluh ribu perjalanan tanpa kejadian yang membawa penumpang pergi dan balik dari dasar air terjun. Pada bulan Ogos 1955, Maid of the Mist yang baru dan lebih besar dibina di Owen Sound dan diangkut ke Air Terjun Niagara dalam empat keping. Kapal baru ini akan dibina sepenuhnya dari besi.

Mungkin momen paling berani Maid of the Mist & # 8217 datang pada 9 Jun 1960 ketika seorang budak lelaki berusia tujuh tahun, Roger Woodward disapu air terjun ketika keluar berperahu dengan rakan-rakan. Seorang kapten yang berfikir dengan cepat memerhatikan jaket keselamatan berwarna jingga di jeram yang deras dan setelah diperiksa lebih dekat, dia menyedari bahawa seorang budak lelaki masih hidup dan berjuang melawan arus di bawah air terjun.

Sekiranya Maid of the Mist tidak berada di lokasi itu pada waktu tertentu untuk menyelamatkan budak lelaki itu, kemungkinan besar dia akan binasa.

Hari ini, keempat Maid of the Mists membawa pelancong dalam perjalanan yang menakjubkan ke dasar air terjun.


Bukan ahli? Sertailah sekarang untuk menikmati faedah penuh ahli termasuk akses ke Daftar dan lebih daripada 1 bilion nama yang boleh dicari di pangkalan data kami. Anda juga akan mendapat akses penuh ke sejumlah alat penyelidikan, staf pakar, dan sumber lain untuk membantu anda mengungkap sejarah keluarga anda.

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2021 TEMA

2021- Keluarga Hitam: Perwakilan, Identiti, dan Kepelbagaian.

Keluarga kulit hitam telah menjadi topik kajian dalam banyak disiplin ilmu — sejarah, sastera, seni visual dan kajian filem, sosiologi, antropologi, dan kebijakan sosial. Ia r epresentasi, identiti, dan kepelbagaian telah dihormati, stereotaip, dan difitnah dari zaman perbudakan hingga zaman kita sendiri. Keluarga kulit hitam tidak mengetahui satu pun lokasi, kerana perjumpaan keluarga dan pencarian keturunan-genetik membuktikan penyebaran anggota keluarga di seluruh negeri, negara, dan benua. Bukan sahaja keluarga hitam individu diaspora, tetapi Afrika dan diaspora itu sendiri telah lama digambarkan sebagai keluarga hitam pada umumnya. Walaupun peranan keluarga hitam digambarkan oleh beberapa orang sebagai mikrokosmos dari seluruh bangsa, kerumitannya sebagai "landasan" kehidupan dan sejarah Afrika Amerika dapat dilihat dalam banyak perdebatan mengenai bagaimana mewakili makna dan kekhasannya dari sejarah perspektif — sebagai hamba atau bebas, sebagai patriarki atau matriarki / matrifokal, sebagai rumah tangga berkepala tunggal atau berkepala dua, seperti diperluas atau nuklear, sebagai keluarga keturunan atau keturunan darah, sebagai undang-undang atau undang-undang umum, dan sebagai hitam atau antara kaum, dll. Variasi juga muncul dalam perbincangan mengenai sifat dan kesan keibubapaan, masa kecil, perkahwinan, norma jantina, seksualiti, dan penahanan. Keluarga ini menawarkan permadani gambar yang kaya untuk meneroka masa lalu dan Amerika Afrika.

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2022- Kesihatan dan Kesejahteraan Hitam

"Ketika orang kulit putih terkena selesema, orang kulit hitam mendapat radang paru-paru." Pepatah lama ini, yang diucapkan oleh anggota masyarakat Afrika Amerika ketika jurang ekonomi menjadi semakin suram, mengungkapkan betapa perkauman anti-hitam yang berbahaya, bahkan dalam bentuk kiasan perubatan. Dalam momen pandemik ini, kesan penyakit yang tidak seimbang terhadap orang-orang Hitam dan Coklat, serta kumpulan lain yang menghadapi kerugian masyarakat terhadap mereka, menimbulkan kekacauan di negara ini dan lebih luas lagi, masyarakat global kita yang lebih besar. Pusat Kawalan dan Pencegahan Penyakit (CDC), melaporkan selesema 1918 menjangkiti hampir 500 juta orang di seluruh dunia. Pandemik awal ini menyebabkan 50 juta kematian di seluruh dunia, termasuk 675,000 di Amerika. Walaupun orang-orang kulit hitam Amerika tampaknya tidak mempunyai angka kematian yang sama selama wabak Influenza 1918, cerita penuh mengungkapkan sebab mengapa orang kulit hitam "diduga" bernasib lebih baik. Terdapat sedikit kajian statistik yang merangkumi mangsa kulit hitam dari Influenza tahun 1918. Pakar sekarang percaya terdapat lebih banyak kematian dalam masyarakat Hitam selama ini, tetapi kerajaan persekutuan dan negeri mengeluarkan orang kulit hitam dari kumpulan data. Semasa wabak selesema 1918 di kebanyakan kota di Amerika Syarikat, orang-orang kulit hitam dan coklat yang dijangkiti baik oleh anggota keluarga atau dipaksa untuk menggunakan "hospital berwarna" yang diasingkan secara ras dan dibiayai dengan buruk. Selama ini, di era Jim Crow, pesakit Hitam sering mendapat rawatan di bawah standar kerana ketidaksetaraan struktur yang ditetapkan dengan kuat berabad-abad yang lalu (mis. Hospital yang kekurangan dana dan kekurangan tenaga kerja, pentadbir kulit putih yang perkauman, dan terlalu ramai). Walaupun dalam kematian, mangsa influenza Hitam tidak terlindung dari anti-Blackness semasa wabak ini. Di Baltimore, Mount Auburn, satu-satunya perkuburan kota untuk penduduk Black, dibanjiri oleh mayat. Pekerja sanitasi putih enggan menggali parit di kawasan perkuburan putih sahaja untuk mayat hitam yang mati. Penentu sosial rasisme, pemisahan, dan kemiskinan memberi kesan negatif terhadap tindak balas orang kulit hitam terhadap wabak paling mematikan abad ke-20.

Melangkah pantas ke 2020 dan corak serupa masih wujud semasa Zaman Covid-19 di ruang Hitam yang sangat banyak. Contohnya, disebabkan oleh kesesakan di tempat kediaman dan hospital, kekurangan hospital, dan orang kulit hitam yang bekerja dalam pekerjaan yang bergaji rendah yang memerlukan penglibatan orang ramai, kita mengalami bencana perubatan. Di kawasan yang paling teruk dilanda Amerika Syarikat, seperti New York City, orang Black dan Brown dua kali lebih mungkin mati akibat COVID-19 berbanding orang kulit putih. Selain itu, kes-kes ini telah tertumpu dalam kod ZIP di mana penduduk berpendapatan rendah, di mana orang tinggal di pangsapuri yang sesak dan tidak dapat bekerja dari rumah, mengasingkan diri dari orang lain, dan melarikan diri ke rumah percutian mereka. Tambahan pula, di Washington, D.C., sebuah bandar dengan jumlah penduduk Black yang lebih tinggi daripada Mississippi, negara "paling hitam", dari 45% kes COVID-19, 79% dari angka tersebut telah mengakibatkan kematian penduduk Black. Lebih banyak lagi berita yang menyedihkan sejak April 2020, orang Amerika Hitam menjadikan lebih daripada 80% pesakit COVID-19 yang dimasukkan ke hospital di Georgia, sebuah negara Blackbelt, dan hampir semua kematian COVID-19 di St. Louis. Kecenderungan serupa telah dilihat untuk pesakit Asia Hitam dan Selatan di United Kingdom. Orang-orang coklat dan hitam di selatan global berada dalam situasi yang hampir sama dan seperti Amerika Syarikat, pemerintah di Asia Selatan dan Inggeris tidak memenuhi keperluan khusus mangsa-mangsa ini. Kami bertekad untuk membuat platform yang menangani perbezaan ini melalui pendidikan dan aktivisme.

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2023- Keganasan dan Penentangan Anti-Hitam di Diaspora


Blondin Pahlawan Niagara

Pada hari Khamis, 30 Jun 1859, suasana di Air Terjun Niagara penuh dengan kegembiraan. Orang Perancis yang sedikit terbangun, berpakaian ketat dan membawa tiang pengimbang panjang, merancang untuk mencuba yang mustahil — dia akan berjalan melintasi gaung Sungai Niagara yang mengerikan kira-kira satu batu di bawah air terjun dengan tali tali langsing, 190 kaki di atas banjir yang deras dan mendidih. Ketika mereka melihat dengan kagum, membayang mata mereka dengan payung, wanita di crinoline hampir terbengkalai. Orang-orang kuat di topi dan stok yang tegang, kerana banyak yang telah mempertaruhkan sejumlah besar hasilnya. Gadis-gadis kecil berpaut pada rok jururawat mereka dan budak-budak kecil berpakaian kemas. Tiga ratus ribu orang —atau sepuluh ribu? — Menahan nafas ketika Jean François Gravelet, lebih dikenali sebagai Blondin, keluar ke kabel yang miring.

Bagi orang-orang fesyen, kekayaan, keindahan, dan budaya, orang utara dan selatan, Air Terjun sudah menjadi tarikan hebat abad yang lalu. Seluruh keluarga dengan pelayan mereka mengunjungi Niagara dengan kereta wap baru. Di sini mereka menghabiskan sepanjang musim panas dengan kesegaran yang merangsang yang masih menjadi ciri kawasan di bulan-bulan panas. Mereka mendaftar di hotel-hotel mewah seperti Clifton House atau Cataract House, dengan ballroom yang besar dan candelier kristal yang hebat. Mereka mendengar muzik lembut dan menari sepanjang malam yang lembut. Mereka duduk di beranda panjang yang menghadap ke jurang sungai dan menggegarkan waktu petang, mendengarkan deru air terjun dan memerhatikan awan kabut yang terus bergelombang dan membuat pelangi ketika air jatuh di batu-batu di bawah.

Terdapat banyak kandang berwarna dengan gerabak dari semua jenis yang ditarik oleh kuda bersalut, kerana itu adalah kebiasaan untuk mengusir setiap hari dan melihat Air Terjun dari pelbagai sudut pandang. Tidak ada taman pada masa itu, tetapi daerah di kedua sisi Niagara penuh dengan kegiatan usaha bebas. Terdapat restoran dan tempat minum serta pertunjukan Punch-and-Judy dan anak lembu berkepala dan wanita berjanggut. Itu adalah tempat yang dibuat untuk memesan Blondin.

Secara fizikal, Blondin adalah seorang lelaki kecil, dibezakan dengan mata biru dan rambut pirang yang telah memberikan nama panggilannya. Dia hanya berdiri lima kaki lima dan beratnya hanya 140 paun. Lincah dan lincah, dia buruk mengembangkan koordinasi yang luar biasa pada jarak dekat selama bertahun-tahun pengalaman di teater dan sarkas. Dia memiliki imajinasi dan keberanian serta kepastian diri yang luar biasa - bahkan keberanian dan kepastian yang cukup untuk tampil tanpa sedikit pun aksi hebat yang menjadi buah dari khayalannya. Dia mula bereksperimen di tali ketat ketika berusia lima tahun. Ketika pertama kali muncul di Niagara pada awal bulan Jun, 1859, dengan tujuan untuk mengumpulkan beberapa dolar pada musim panas sementara menunggu untuk memulakan pertunangan pada akhir bulan Ogos dengan Pasukan Berkuda Franconi. Dia ketika itu berusia 35 tahun dan teruk datang ke Amerika Syarikat lapan tahun sebelumnya.

Semasa dia bersiap untuk acara besar itu, Blondin menunjukkan kejeniusannya untuk publisiti dan pemahamannya tentang rasa ingin tahu yang banyak dari orang ramai. Dia buruk mengatur penggunaan kabel tali berdiameter dua inci dan panjang 1.300 kaki. Mengikat meja ini di seberang jurang yang mengaum dan dengan selamat melabuhkannya di kedua sisi menimbulkan masalah yang cukup besar. Tali cahaya, berdiameter tujuh-lapan inci, dilekatkan pada salah satu hujung meja dan digunakan untuk menyampaikannya di seberang sungai. Di sisi Amerika itu dililit pohon ek yang besar di White's Pleasure Grounds, Ketika ditarik ke dalam jarak sekitar 200 kaki dari sisi Kanada, beberapa pembantu Blondin menyatakan ketakutan bahawa tali cahaya tidak akan cukup kuat untuk menanggung berat kabel berat seperti yang dipasang dari jurang Niagara untuk berlabuh di Kanada.

Blondin tahu apa yang harus dilakukan. Sementara penonton menatap, dia melekatkan tali lain ke badannya, menuruni tali 200 kaki di tali kecil itu, melekatkan tali kedua juga di hujung kabel, dan kemudian dengan tenang kembali ke tanah Kanada. Dengan dua garisan yang menyokongnya, kabel ditarik ke darat dan diikat pada batu.

Sebenarnya, terdapat kira-kira 1.200 kaki kabel di atas gaung. Kira-kira lima puluh kaki diambil oleh kendi yang tidak dapat dielakkan di tengah, dan beberapa kaki di setiap ujungnya diperlukan untuk memberikan ketegangan dan penahan yang aman. Ia terbentang di tengah-tengah antara Suspension Bridge dan Clifton House. Untuk mengelakkannya bergoyang, tali lelaki berlari dari jarak kira-kira dua puluh kaki ke tiang penambat di kedua tebing. Tetapi ada bahagian yang cukup besar di tengahnya, mungkin setebal lima puluh kaki, di mana tidak praktikal mengikat tali lelaki. Pada titik-titik di mana kabel datang ke darat, tanah berada sekitar 240 kaki di atas permukaan air Niagara. Ini bermaksud, membiarkan jalan kendur, pusatnya sebenarnya berada sekitar 190 kaki di atas perairan jurang yang jatuh.

Pada hari Khamis, 30 Jun, hari yang dijadualkan untuk penyeberangan pertama Blondin. Niagara mempunyai udara karnival. Di pihak Amerika terdapat grandstands khas - yang dikenakan bayaran masuk. Pada awal hari, Blondin melakukan prestasi awal di tali ketat di White's Pleasure Grounds sementara kumpulan muzik memainkan "God Save the Queen," "Hail, Columbia" dan tayangan popular lainnya. Di kedua ujung meja, Harry Colcord, pengurus Blondin, telah menyediakan kandang kecil dengan "setiap kemudahan" untuk wartawan. Itu, kata Buffalo Morning Express, "hanya hari untuk perkara seperti ini."

Sekejap-sekejap suara itu merungut pada keluhan yang diharapkan ketika Blondin muncul di hujung kabel Amerika. Apa yang dilihat penonton dilaporkan pada pagi berikutnya di Express: Mons. Blondin baru saja berjaya mencapai prestasi berjalan di seberang Sungai Nigeria dengan tali yang ketat di hadapan orang ramai yang dianggarkan dari lima hingga sepuluh ribu orang, yang pertama menyeberang dari pihak Amerika, berhenti di tengah jalan untuk menyegarkan dirinya dengan air yang dibangkitkan di sebotol dengan tali dari dek kapal pengukus Maid of the Mist. Masa yang dihabiskan di persimpangan pertama adalah tujuh belas dan dewan minit.

Ketika Blondin tiba di sebelah Kanada, dia memberi salam kepada wartawan, bersulang dengan minuman keras untuk kesihatannya, dan mengumumkan bahawa dia akan kembali melalui kabel ke pihak Amerika di dewan sejam. Koleksi diambil untuknya, dan dia dibawa dalam kereta yang ditarik oleh empat teluk yang dihiasi bendera ke Clifton House untuk berehat sebentar. Ketika dia kembali ke kabel untuk persimpangan kembali, wartawan menulis bahawa dia mengambil beberapa "makanan ringan yang disediakan oleh Mr. Kavanagh dari Great Western Hotel." Perjalanan pulang - dibuat dengan cepat dan tanpa insiden - hampir anti klimaks. "Dia tentu saja berada di kepala pengikat tali yang ketat dan kepemilikan begitu banyak dan kurangnya ketakutan pasti menjadi kemewahan," kata sebuah editorial Express. "Vive Blondin."

Rancangan Blondin untuk masa depan, terutama untuk persimpangan pada 4 Julai, banyak dipublikasikan. Pemandangan sungai, ketika percutian itu tiba, pasti sangat pelik. Setiap titik pandang — setiap pohon, setiap batu, dan juga setiap tempat duduk di tempat-tempat duduk — ditempati oleh orang ramai, dengan yakin bahawa Blondin akan kehilangan keseimbangan dan terjun ke jurang Niagara. Mereka tidak pernah mengalihkan pandangannya, jangan sampai mereka terlepas masa yang mengerikan. Pertaruhan pada hasilnya dikatakan sangat besar.

Pada waktu yang ditentukan, Blondin muncul di hujung kabel Amerika tanpa tiang pengimbang 38 kaki. Setengah jalan, dia meletakkan kabel sepenuhnya, meletakkan satu kaki di atas kaki yang lain. Dia berjalan mundur dengan cepat, seimbang dengan satu kaki, memanjangkan kaki yang lain dan juga badannya di atas "banjir mendidih," berpusing-pusing sambil seolah-olah dia "berada di bangku pangsi, mengulanginya di khemah kabel, mengambil termos dari poket dan minum, kemudian menyelesaikan perjalanannya.

Setelah berehat kira-kira satu jam, dia muncul di hujung kabel Kanada, melambai karung. Ketika diletakkan di atas kepalanya, penonton melihat bahawa ia sampai ke lututnya, kehilangan pandangannya dan penggunaan tangan dan tangannya. Dengan kekurangan ini, dia mengulangi perjalanan kembali evolusi penyeberangan sebelumnya. "Sebenarnya, tulis wartawan Express yang gembira," hampir tidak dapat mempercayai prestasi itu benar-benar nyata, dan berdiri menatap tali langsing dan jurang yang mengerikan dalam keadaan sangat bingung. ... Saya melihatnya kembali seperti mimpi. "

Pada 15 Julai, Express melaporkan apa yang disebut sebagai persembahan "perpisahan" Blondin. Dia dilaporkan membuat persimpangan pertamanya berjalan mundur dari Amerika ke sisi Kanada. Dalam perjalanan kembali, dia mendorong kereta sorong, "berhenti di tengah untuk melakukan beberapa aksi." Pada hari ini, dia mempunyai kumpulan terhebat sejauh ini.

Tetapi masih ada yang akan datang, Blondin tidak berniat untuk mengucapkan selamat tinggal sementara orang ramai terus bertambah. Pada hari Rabu, 3 Agustus, tidak diragukan lagi "berdasarkan permintaan populer", dia mengiklankan persimpangan keempat. Komuniti di kedua-dua belah Air Terjun Niagara penuh sesak dengan pengunjung, melebihi semua pameran sebelumnya. Banyak orang datang, bukan sahaja dari Buffalo dan Toronto tetapi juga dari Rochester dan banyak bandar lain. Laluan kereta api dan kapal uap menjalankan lawatan.

Blondin muncul kira-kira pukul empat tiga petang dan dengan pantas melintasi pasukan Amerika ke Kanada dengan apa yang disifatkan oleh seorang wartawan sebagai "langkah tersekat. Dia berehat selama lima belas minit di Kanada dan memulakan kepulangannya. Kira-kira separuh jalan ke pusat, dia berhenti dan duduk, dan kemudian membentang panjang. After this, he proceeded to do “a number of daring antics” and finally stood on his head “a moment at least,” swinging and kicking his feet in “the most reckless and ludicrous manner.”

He then resumed his journey, but paused to repeat his antics with the addition of a backward somersault and one or two sudden swings around the cable. (Screams from the ladies.) He laid his balancing pole across the guy ropes, went to the middle distance of the cable, swung himself under it by his hands, and proceeded to work his way back and forth with his hands and feet, monkey-style. He varied this performance by clutching the cable with both hands, swinging his body clear of it, and then hanging for several seconds by both hands, and finally by one hand.

He repeatedly turned somersaults after the fashion of small boys, throwing his feet over his head and between his arms and hanging by his shoulder joints in “a most unnatural position.” He held his body in a horizontal position with his hands, then suspended himself by both legs and later by one leg, with nothing but air and his strength and skill between him and the raging waters below. He whirled around the cable, turned more somersaults, and stood on his head again. He repeated many of the stunts several times before he returned to the American side of the Niagara, completing a performance “exciting enough,” according to the Express reporter, “for the most greedy seeker after sensations.”

Then, on August 17, came a performance that in sheer excitement—and real danger—surpassed anything Blondin had attempted. He crossed from the American side, doing many of his usual stunts. But then, after a short rest, he appeared on the Canadian end of the cable with Harry Colcord clinging to his back.

Colcord weighed about the same as Blondin—140 pounds—so that the Frenchman was carrying a weight equal to his own, plus his 45-pound balancing pole.

Two looped cords hung from Blondin’s shoulders, and into these Colcord had thrust his legs so that he was riding pickaback, his arms about Blondin’s neck. The little wire-walker covered about one third of the distance swiftly, with no sign of fatigue. Then he stopped and asked Colcord to slip his legs out of the slings and stand on the cable, holding on to Blondin’s shoulders. After Blondin had rested a few minutes, Colcord mounted again—not an easy feat because of the slippery tights Blondin wore—and they went on.

It soon became evident to the spectators that the weight of Colcord and the length of the crossing were telling on Blondin. Halts for rest became more and more frequent. Colcord, for whom this was a new experience, became increasingly terrified. He had been warned not to look down, but his eyes were drawn irresistibly to the white-capped waters 190 feet below. He was fascinated by the illusion that he and Blondin were moving swiftly upstream.

They had now reached the center of the cable, and here, where there were no guy ropes, it swayed disconcertingly. Blondin seemed to stagger under his load. His balancing pole swung furiously up and down. Colcord had all he could do to heed the directions to “rest like a dead weight on my back.” Blondin had told him, “If I should sway or stumble, do not attempt to balance yourself.” Now, at the most dangerous stage of the crossing, Colcord simply had to obey orders.

On shore, the crowds were under an enormous emotional strain. Some shielded their eyes in fear of what they might see, and still they could not look away.

In a brave attempt to regain his balance, Blondin ran swiftly along thirty feet of the cable to the first guy rope strung to the American side. Here he paused to recover his strength and his breath and to rest his straining back. He placed one foot on a guy rope at the cable, and it promptly broke. He had to start regaining his balance all over again—a feat made more difficult by the fact that the sudden release of tension on one side made the cable jerk sideways. But, despite this surprise, Blondin regained his balance after a moment and rushed to the next pair of guy ropes.

Again he told Colcord to get off. Blondin’s body was rigid, every muscle tense. Beads of perspiration stood out on his face and body. When finally he could breathe more easily, he ordered Colcord back into position, began his slow climb up the slope of the cable, and finally reached the American shore.

There never had been such a crowd waiting for him. The strain suddenly relieved, people surged toward him. Blondin was dismayed. He began to fear that he and Colcord might be shoved over the bank by the pressure of those pushing up from the rear.

“What will I do?” he asked Colcord.

“Make a rush and drive right through them,” Colcord urged, and this is what Blondin did.

The wildly excited welcomers hoisted the two men to their shoulders and cheered themselves hoarse. (Blondin later told Colcord that the guy rope had snapped because someone had been tampering with it. There was enormous betting on Blondin, and he suspected some gambler had tried to weigh the scales against him slightly.)

On the last day of August, Blondin gave his first night performance. This was long before the days of massed floodlights at Niagara Falls, and in order to relieve the darkness of the crossing, a locomotive headlight had been placed at each end of the cable. Blondin carried colored lights at the tips of his balancing pole, so that the crowd could follow his progress.

It seemed to the watching thousands that the little Frenchman was pressing his skill and luck too far. They were certain of it when the lights on his pole suddenly went out just as he reached the mid-point of his journey. But those who were near enough to the cable to touch it could tell by the vibration that he was still on it, and he completed the journey safely.

In subsequent crossings Blondin the showman even further embellished the exploits of Blondin the tightrope walker. Once he crossed with baskets on his feet and shackles on his body. At another time he carried a table and chair and tried to seat himself on the chair with two of its legs balanced on the cable. The chair fell into the Niagara, and Blondin nearly tumbled after. He regained his balance, sat down on the cable, and ate a piece of cake, washed down with champagne.

Much to the delight of the businessmen on both sides of the Niagara, Blondin returned in 1860 and repeated some of his feats on a cable strung over the Whirlpool Rapids. Former President Millard Fillmore, who lived in Buffalo, is known to have watched one of the 1859 crossings, and in September, 1860, Blondin carried Colcord across on his back again before the Prince of Wales, who was to become King Edward VII.

When he left Niagara, Blondin still had a long career before him. He performed at Coney Island during the summer of 1888, and when he gave his last performance—in Belfast, Ireland, in 1896 at the age of 72—it is said that he walked his wire as nimbly as ever. For years he lived near London, in a home he called Niagara House, and there he died in 1897.

Meanwhile, at Niagara itself, Blondin had a number of imitators over the years, but though several of them performed feats of equal skill, it was Blondin who remained the hero of Niagara, and no one ever took his place in the public’s affection. Songs were written about him, and years afterward, on the long verandas facing the gorge, people who as children had witnessed his exploits still talked about the daring Frenchman with the blue eyes and the wavy blond hair who had made them gasp and look away and look again as he performed his incredible antics, supremely indifferent to the grisly death that was only a slight misstep away.


Niagara VII PG-52 - History

The Maid of the Mist dock facilities (Ontario)

The most famous legend in Niagara Falls is that of the Maid of the Mist, the Thunder God Hinum and the origin of the Falls of Niagara. This legend originated with the Neuter Indian Nation which occupied the Niagara District when the first French priests came to their villages to preach Christianity.

The story goes that Indian tribes were dying of an unknown cause. Each year the Indians were sending canoes filled with fruit over the Falls to appease the God Hinum and his two sons who the Indians believed lived behind the Falls. When the Indian luck did not improve, they felt that their God was not satisfied. Consequently they began sacrificing their most beautiful Indian maiden each year but still their luck did not improve.

One year, Lelawalo, the daughter of the Chief of the tribe was sacrificed to the spirit of the Falls. She was placed into a canoe filled with food and sent on her way over the mighty cataract. Legend says that this Indian maiden was caught in the arms of the God's sons. Recalling that she had been sent to her death, the Indian maiden agreed to take one of the sons as her husband with one condition.

One of the sons relented and told her that there was a poisonous snake that lived at the bottom of the river would get hungry once a year and crawl to the where the Indians were and poison their water. The Indians would drink the poisoned water and die. After burial, the snake would return to consume their bodies.

The Indian maiden convinced the youngest son of the God to allow her to go back to the tribe one more time to tell them what the snake was doing and how to kill them with spears. One night when the snake returned , the Indian braves were waiting and speared the snake. The snake crawled back to the edge of the Falls and died with its body shaped like a horseshoe.

Legend has it that the shape of the Falls became horseshoe shaped from the body of the snake. It is said that it remains to this day, showing that the Gods are still protecting the Indians against evil spirits.

The Maid of the Mist at the base of the Horseshoe Falls

To learn more about the early history of Niagara Falls,
please visit the Chronicles of our Early Settlers section
.

selection from the Chronicles of our Early Settlers section

The Front Cover of an Early Maid of the Mist brochure

In 1807, Christian Dow speculated about the possibility of man crossing the Niagara River below the Falls as he watched wild ducks swimming back and forth across the span of the river.

The location of Indian ladders down the gorge wall at the site of the current Maid of the Mist dock are seen in early guide pamphlets. Until 1795, when Mrs. Simcoe (Governor John Graves Simcoe's wife) visited, the ladders were the only way down the gorge embankment. In her diary, she wrote: "Mr. Pilkington was desired to place ladders to form a stairway down the bank".

Mr. Pilkington did arrange the ladders in a stairway fashion but it was still a very daring and dangerous undertaking.

In 1818, William Forsyth built a stairway at the former ladder site to facilitate access to his row boat ferry service which Forsyth was planning to operate.

In 1818, William Forsyth along with American hotel owner Parkhurst Whitney, began the first row boat ferry service crossing the Niagara River below the Falls. Forsyth did so without at first obtaining government permission.

Parkhurst Whitney built the first stairway down the bank of the Gorge on the American side.

When Forsyth finally asked for government permission, Thomas Clark strongly objected to Forsyth's aggressiveness, and used his influence to lobby politicians to prevent Forsyth from obtaining the ferry service lease.

With the support of Thomas Clark, Christopher Boughner was granted the government lease to operate the ferry service. The lease was to begin on December 25th 1820 for seven year period.

William Forsyth was outraged at the government decision to grant Boughner the ferry lease. To further infuriate Forsyth, Boughner built a stairway to the ferry dock adjacent to Forsyth's stairway.

Forsyth knew that Boughner had a number of debts. Forsyth went about buying up all of Boughner's debts until Forsyth became Boughner's sole creditor. Forsyth began applying pressure to have Boughner pay his debts knowing full well that Boughner could not.

Boughner finally caved into Forsyth's pressure and gave up his rights to the ferry service to Forsyth in exchange for Forsyth canceling Boughner's debts. After fourteen months, Boughner was out of the ferry business while William Forsyth was in business again.

Thomas Clark was very angry over how Forsyth had forced Boughner to give up his ferry service to Forsyth.

On December 21st 1821, Thomas Clark wrote a letter to the Government of Upper Canada outlining what Forsyth had done to Boughner in order to take over the ferry service. Clark recommended that the government revoke Forsyth's ferry lease and award it to someone else.

On January 23rd 1822, acting on the recommendation of the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, the ferry service lease of William Forsyth was rescinded for non-payment of the quarterly fee that had not bee paid to the government.

On April 30th 1822, the government granted the ferry service lease to George Milmine. He was allowed to operate the service for a three year term.

The inside page of an Early Maid of the Mist brochure

On April 15th 1825, Thomas Clark and Samuel Street applied for and granted a twenty-one year lease. The granting of their lease hinged on their commitment to build a carriage road down the side of the gorge to the ferry landing. Their lease expired in 1846. The road to the ferry landing cost $5,000 and was paved with cobblestone. It had a hairpin turn during the descent. This turn was until several years ago, still as it was when built by Clark and Street. Modernization has now eliminated this turn.

In 1825, the stairway on the American side was replaced with a spiral stairway built by the Porter Brothers, who owned the American Falls at the time.

Augustus and Peter Porter applied for and were granted the rights to operate the American ferry service. The Porter brothers attempted to blast a road along the gorge wall approximately 100 feet north of the American Falls. The road was never completed because rock falls and washouts forced the Porter brothers to abandon their plans.

The Porter stairway remained in operation until 1844 when the stairway was augmented by an incline railway cut into the gorge wall. The new incline railway was water powered.

The crossing time with a large rowboat took eight minutes. Fares ranged from 18 in summer months and 25 in the winter months.

During the 1840's, more than forty rowboats were plying their trade on the lower Niagara River. Rowboats were now being employed in taking tourists upstream to the base of the American and Horseshoe Falls. Throughout the period of rowboat use, there are no records of any accidents.

On November 6th 1845, Adam Fralick was granted a ferry license. He was restricted to operating his ferry service 2.5 miles downstream of the Falls.

On January 11th 1850, management of the ferry service was given to the Customs Branch of the Inspector Generals Office.

On April 29th 1853, Gilbert Mickmicken was awarded the ferry lease.

In 1846, the Niagara Falls Ferry Association received its charter from the State of New York to operate a steamboat ferry service.

In May 1846, an awkward looking large steamship with two smoke stacks was launched. It was christened "Maid of the Mist". This 100 ton ferry was commanded by Captain Filkins and Captain George Synes. The ferry operated from a dock located just south of the Railway Bridge.

In 1848, the Falls View Suspension Bridge was completed. Ferry service across the Niagara River became obsolete overnight. It was now quicker, easier and cheaper to use the bridge to cross the Niagara Gorge.

In order to remain in business and to keep it profitable, the Niagara Falls Ferry Association began using the "Maid of the Mist" to take tourists on trips past the base of the American Falls and the Horseshoe Falls.

On January 9th 1851, the Maid of the Mist sank in twenty feet of water while moored at its Bellevue wharf. The cause was attributed to the build up of heavy snow. The Maid of the Mist was re-floated. It had sustained little damage. It remained in service until 1854.

On July 14th 1854, the new "Maid of the Mist" was launched. The new boat was a steam driven paddle wheel boat measuring 72 feet (22m) long and 17 feet (5.18m) breadth of beam. It had an eight foot (2.4m) draught and was powered by a 100 horsepower engine. This ferry was commanded by Captain Joel E. Robinson. Passengers were given oil skin coats and caps to keep them dry. This Maid of the Mist made its last trip in the Fall of 1860.

On June 6th 1861, after the Maid of the Mist had been sold, Captain Robinson and a crew of two, sailed the Maid of the Mist through the Great Gorge Rapids on route to Montreal. It was a perilous journey but successful. Captain Robinson retired after the trip through the rapids. (see Daredevils Section)

From 1860 to 1885, there were no steamboat ferries in the Niagara River below the Falls.

In 1883, a replica of the Maid of the Mist ferry boat was sent through the Great Gorge Rapids with no one on board as a publicity stunt.

By 1868, there were now two suspension bridges in operation across the Niagara Gorge.

In 1878, the railroads began bringing tourists back to the Falls in large numbers. This spurned the building of a new Maid of the Mist steamboat ferry.

In 1884, R.F. Carter and Frank Le Blond of the Village of Clifton invested $10,000 into the building of the new Maid of the Mist.

The third Maid of the Mist was built at the dock on the Canadian side. It was launched into service in 1885. A sister ship was built on the US side.

In 1894, the International Railway Company built a passenger incline railway down the embankment on the Canadian shore.

In 1906, the American incline railway was changed from being water powered to electrical power.

In 1938, the great ice jam that destroyed the Honeymoon Bridge threatened to destroy the two Maids of the Mist tour boats. Both survived, only to be destroyed by fire on April 22nd 1955. The fire was started when a spark from a welders torch ignited.

Niagara Falls Fire Chief Dies-Boats Damaged

Both Maids of the Mist are Razed - Chief Collapses Fighting Fires

Fire Chief John C. Shapton died in the Greater Niagara General Hospital at 12:35 pm following a heart seizure suffered 90 minutes earlier while he was directing firefighting operations at the Maid of the Mist landing where the fire almost completely destroyed the two Maids of the Mist mounted on their winter births.

Shapton, age 59, was rushed to the hospital by his son Thomas, also a city fireman after collapsing at the dock where the firemen were pumping water from the Niagara River.

Chief Shapton was the only full-time chief in the history of the fire department. He had heroically led the battle from the time the fire started at approximately 10:15 a.m.. Fire swept through the two vessels in 10 minutes time feeding on a tar canvas covering. Only the hulls were still intact. Frank Le Blond, president of the Maid of the Mist Steamship Company estimated the replacement value at $350,000. Inspectors from the Canadian Steamship Comapny after examining the damage stated that both maids may be able to operate in the summer. At first both boats were believed a total loss but inspectors found that only the upper sections of the boats burned in the flash fire. In event that both boats cannot be fixed, Mr. Le Blond will attempt to secure several launches to operate with.

The fire started in the starboard corner of the large boat when workmen were working with torches. It was first spotted by Thomas Masson, he's a carpenter who suffered cuts and a sprained arm fighting the fire. Wilford Storm another employee suffered bruised ribs. Twenty-eight men were working on the two vessels when the flames broke out. The fire spread rapidly and fed on the tar canvas on both boats.

No accidents or injuries have occurred on the Maid of the Mist except when one of the vessels was disabled when a drift log fouled it's propellers. Captain Malloy signalled Captain Carter for assistance and got a line aboard from the other Maid and towed the crippled boat back to the American side.

1916- Two other accidents were recorded. On September 21st, when the Maid of the Mist ran aground beside Goat Island. The captain ordered the passengers to put on life preservers and prepare to launch lifeboats but the boat pulled itself free from under its own power.

October 2nd 1916 on the last trip of the year when a propeller shaft broke near the foot of the Horseshoe Falls. The captain ordered the anchor cast. Passengers were taken to Goat Island but the crew remained on the boat all night until it was removed the next morning.

April 23rd 1955 - Maids of the Mist to sail again. The new looks Maid of the Mist to sail the summer. They will be launch type vessels without upper structures.

April 26nd 1955 - Steamship inspectors approve rebuilding of Maid's of the Mist. Le Blond estimates it will cost $150,000. They have abandoned the idea to operate without upper deck because it is not financially viable. With main deck large vessel can carry 140 people and the small boat can carry 100 people.

April 30th 1955 - New Maid of the Mist will sail in Niagara. A contract signed by Frank La Blond, president of the Maid of the Mist Company and the Russell-Hipwell Shipbuilding Company of Owen Sound for the construction of the new Maid. The single decker will cost approximately $100,000. It will be prefabricated and moved into the Niagara gorge in sections. Le Blond hopes to have the new vessel in operation in August.

May 11th 1955 - Maid operation will resume in a months time. A steel hull made in Holland and moored at Hamilton Harbour for two years was skidded down into the gorge Tuesday. The hull was moved and lowered into the gorge lasting ten hours. A deck and wheelhouse will be constructed immediately. Ship will have a 35 passenger capacity with two diesel engines and be 40 feet long and weighing eight tons.

June 1st 1955 - Operate new Maid by mid-June. Forty foot steamer nears completion powered by two - 100 horsepower diesel engines.

June 13th 1955 - Launch of the little Maid into the Niagara River.

July 11th 1955 - The first of big Maid's moving into the gorge. The first of four sections that will be welded together. The vessel will be 65 feet long and have a 100 person capacity. It will be the first of two ships to be built.

July 12th 1955 - Word has it that wood from the two burned out Maids of the Mist will be turned into wooden nickels. it is a promotional stunt by Niagara Falls Chamber of Commerce. Fifty thousand wooden nickels will be made.

July 29th 1955 - The new Maid of Mist was christened and is ready for service. Thousands of citzens witnessed the launching ceremonies of the Maid of the Mist 3.

August 4th 1955 - The new Maid of the Mist 3 begins regular sailings.

August 17th 1955 - The wooden nickels are on sale.

In less than one month after the fire, a forty foot yacht was brought down to the ferry dock along the service road on the Canadian shore. This boat was named the "Little Maid of the Mist".

The Maids of the Mist tour boats need to be taken out of the water before November 1st each year. Ontario Hydro reduces the water level on that date so that the boats would be not be able to reach their winter cradles

Since 1971, the Maid of the Mist Tour Boat Company has been owned by the Glynn family of Lewiston, New York. It is an American Company however the boats are registered from St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

The Maid of the Mist Tour Boat facilities at the base of the Prospect Point Tower (New York)

* the Maid of the Mist cannot be launched into the waters of the Niagara River until after April 1st of each year. The presence of ice in the river may delay the date of the launch.

The First Time
Lifting the Maid of the Mist VI and the Maid of the Mist VII onto Winter Dry Docks - Niagara Falls USA
October 31st 2013

Preparing to lift the Maid of the Mist boats onto winter dry-docks - Niagara Falls USA
October 29th 2013

The entire Liebherr Crane, weighing nearly 160 tons, will be used to lift the Maid of the Mist boats out of the Niagara River
for storage at its new docking site during the winter months. The crane is anchored 70 feet (21.3m) into the bedrock.

The Maid of the Mist, which has operated tour boats at the base of the Falls since 1846 and owned by the Glynn family since 1971, lost its Canadian contract in 2009 when the Niagara Parks Commission (Ontario) elected to reopened the Glynn's tour boat contract to open bidding as a result of lawsuits and public scrutiny of the company's no-bid contract.

The Maid was outbid by Hornblower Cruises and Entertainment, a California-based cruise operator, and lost its storage facilities located on the Canadian side of the gorge along with the right to operate in Ontario. Hornblower gained rights to the site at the beginning of 2014.

That process netted the deal with Hornblower, a 30-year contract Canadian officials estimate will generate more than $500 million in revenue to the parks governing body, or $300 million more than it received in its previous agreement with Maid of the Mist.

With no storage facilities on the American side of the gorge, the company was in danger of losing its ability to operate the attraction and it's ultimate extinction following a legendary and colourful history.

The Maid of the Mist had an existing lease with the State of New York signed in 2002, which allows the company to run boat tours from the American side of the lower Niagara Gorge. The Maid of the Mist lease on the American side of the Niagara River expires in 2043.

In 2012, New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo joined the Glynn's in announcing an amendment to the Maid of the Mist's existing 40-year contract that was signed in 2002. This amendment will add the State of New York take in an additional $105 million over the course of agreement and see the Maid of the Mist Tour Boat Company spend an additional $32 million to convert the historic Schoellkopf Power Station site into a dry dock facility for the boats and to enhance the historic aspects of the site to create another attraction for visitors.

In 2012 Maid of the Mist faced closure in the absence of storage space for its boats on the New York side of the river. Governor Cuomo struck a deal to keep the boats running and produce increased revenues for Niagara Falls State Park. The Maid of the Mist Corporation agreed to invest $32 million in the former Schoellkopf Power Station site near the falls to make it suitable for the winter storage and maintenance of its boats. Under the memorandum, the company agreed to increase its license payments to the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, totalling $105 million over 30 years three times the revenues that were projected for the 30-year period when a contract was initially approved in 2002.

The Maid of the Mist Company will build two new electric catamaran-style vessels Maid of the Mist vessels. Both will be able to carry about 520 passengers each.The catamaran hull is welded 5086 H116 aluminum, and is 27.5 m (90 ft) long and 10.4 m (34 ft) wide, with a 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) draft, and can carry 500 people. Each boat has 316 kWh batteries powering 400 kW motors.

Designed by Propulsion Data Systems, the new totally integrated vessels are currently under construction by Burger Boat Company in Manitowoc, Wisc. In mid-May, the modules will be transported to Niagara Falls and lowered onto the Maid of the Mist dry dock and maintenance facility for assembly. Following completion of construction, launch and certification, the new vessels will be placed into service.

ABB will supply a comprehensive integrated power and propulsion solution for the new-build vessels, including lithium-ion battery packs and an onshore charging system, enabling sustainable operation with maximum reliability.

Powered by ABB s zero-emission technology, the two fully-electric vessels will take tourists to the heart of the Niagara Falls, undisturbed by engine noise or exhaust fumes. Batteries will be recharged for seven minutes after each trip to 80% capacity, allowing for maximum efficiency and battery life. A ride is 20 minutes

Each of the vessels will be powered by a pair of battery packs with a total capacity of 316 kWh, split evenly between two catamaran hulls. Having two fully independent power systems on board will increase the resilience of operations by creating a redundancy.

The vessels will charge between every trip while passengers disembark and board. Shoreside charging will only take seven minutes, allowing the batteries to power the electric propulsion motors capable of a total 400 kW (563 HP) output. The power setup will be controlled by ABB s integrated Power and Energy Management System (PEMS), which will optimize the energy use on board.

The hull of the new vessels features an icon of the electricity symbol within a water droplet surrounded by a turbine with Niagara Falls in the background. The color scheme is environmentally-friendly green combined with the blue of the water.

The new vessels are named after Tesla, the genius inventor whose lifelong dream had been to harness the energy of the natural wonder of Niagara Falls.

the New Maid of the Mist Being Built

Maid of the Mist III built 1970 sold 1992 NLD 1998 Hike Metal Products, Wheatley ON
Maid of the Mist IV built 1974 scrapped 2013 Hike Metal Products, Wheatley ON
Maid of the Mist V built 1983 scrapped 2013 Hike Metal Products, Wheatley ON

Maid of the Mist VI (1990) - will be retired from service when the new vessels begin operating
Maid of the Mist VII (1997) - will be retired from service when the new vessels begin operating


26" Middleweights for Boys

26" Middleweights for Girls

Lightweights for Boys

Lightweights for Girls

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Tonton videonya: NIAGARA FALLS ONTARIO CANADA during pandemic time Sept. 2021 #niagarafalls #niagara (Julai 2022).


Komen:

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